Dutch botanist, born in Arras, France (then Netherlands Southern), in 1526 and died in Leiden in 1609.
He began his studies in his home town and in Ghent to move later to Leuven, at whose University obtained in 1548 the degree of Licentiate in law, as well as receiving a solid education in classical languages. Attracted by Protestant ideas, he was then at the University of Marburg, where he became to Lutheranism under the influence of André Gheeraerds (Hyperius) theologian, as well as at Wittenberg, where he was in direct relation to Melanchthon, who advised him to devote himself to medicine.
From 1551 to 1554 he studied medicine at Montpellier, where he had as main master Guillaume Rondelet, and after five years in the South of the Netherlands, completed their preparation in Paris, which was forced to flee in 1562 because of its participation in the Huguenots conspiracies. Two years later was preceptor of Jacobus Fugger, son of the famous German banker Anton Fugger (see Family Fugger), in the company which made a journey of sixteen months in the Iberian Peninsula. From Bayonne, it came to Vitoria in 1564; He then went to Burgos, Valladolid, Salamanca and other cities of Castilla la Vieja, went through the Guadarrama, and after being in Alcalá and Guadalajara, arrived in Madrid in September. It then passed through Toledo, Guadalupe and Badajoz and traveled the rest of the year in Portugal. In the following January he was in Seville, followed by the rest of Andalucia, Murcia and Valencia, from where it returned to Madrid in April.
Over the next decade, Clusius resided in the Netherlands, where he participated actively in the Calvinist movement. From 1567 to 1573 lived almost exclusively in Mechelen, at the home of Jean de Brancion, perhaps the best of friends. He then met Benito Arias Montano, who was in Antwerp from 1568 until 1575 commissioned by Felipe II in the edition of the famous Biblia sacra, hebraice chaldaice, graece et latine, which printed By Mr Plantino. Arias engaged closely with de l ' Écluse and the rest of intellectuals and scientists who met regularly at home of this great printer, and even became the spiritualist sect "Family Charitatis", which had its main core in it. The friendship between the two is reflected in his works, letters that crossed and in his correspondence with third parties. Botany occupied a prominent place in this relationship.
In 1573 Clusius was moved to Vienna, to be appointed by the Emperor Maximiliano II responsible for the Organization of a garden of medicinal plants. He lived in the imperial capital until the death of the monarch in 1588, since his successor, Rodolfo II, did not renew her charge because of their religious views. During these three years he studied the flora of Austria and Hungary, which would be the subject of another of his major books. After his dismissal, he lived in Frankfurt until, in October 1593, he was appointed Honorary Professor of botany at the University of Leiden. Despite his poor state of health, lived still fifteen years, primarily devoted to the publication of his works and also to plan the "Hortus academicus" University.
To make your trip to the Iberian Peninsula, Clusius met Juan Plaza, Professor of "herbes" or simple of the University of Valencia, and among his numerous correspondents medicines appeared long time Francisco Holbecq, "Distiller" and gardener of Felipe II in Aranjuez. During the last three decades of his life in Leiden maintained, first, a fruitful relationship correspondence and exchange of botanical materials with the physician and naturalist Seville Simón de Tovar, who was one of the first in Europe compiled and distributed annual catalogues of the plants in your garden, and after his death in 1596, with the also Sevillians Castañeda Juan and Rodrigo Zamorano. Castaneda was another physician who studies plants and Zamorano, the famous cosmographer in the Casa de contratación, took advantage of their status as examiner of pilots of the so-called "Indian race" to have a garden and a museum or collection of rarities from all over the world, mainly vegetables and animals.
The work of Clusius collecting their initial relationship with Spanish naturalists is Rariorum aliquot stirpium per Hispanias observatarum history (1576), which exhibited the materials from your travel during 1564 and 1565 by the Iberian Peninsula and that was the main monograph on its flora published in this century. It is notable that it only referring to the University of Valencia, which also spoke with praise in his correspondence, despite having been in Seville, Madrid and the great Castilian University cities of Salamanca, Valladolid and Alcalá. Nearly a dozen times CITES Professor Valencian Juan Plaza, which is the only Spanish Renaissance author that appears, with the exception of a mention Nebrija. Most of these citations refer to plants of the region of Valencia Plaza had studied in the course of their excursions, or his views on the identification of those mentioned by classical authors. In both cases, it highlights the great respect which was, to the point of becoming to equate it to Rondelet. However, on two occasions quoted him on the occasion of the avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and the pitera or maguey (Agave atrovirens Karw), American plants that had given him in a Valencian garden.
In his book on the Austro-Hungarian flora, Rariorum aliquot stirpium per Pannoniam, Austriam, et vicinas quasdam provinces observatarum historia (1583) and its reissue next to the Iberian Peninsula (1601), in the volume which gathered their translations of works about "exotic" natural history (1605) and their subsequent Curae (1611), Clusius published texts and reproduced news that their Spanish correspondents had sent him.
He devoted, for example, a chapter to "hyacinth", on the occasion of eleven that had sent him from Aranjuez Francisco Holbecq, "most of which (because Spain is very fruitful in bulbaceas and other exotic plants) not I saw during my trip to Spain". One of the species that introduced him to "the famous Arias Montano" was the Peruvian "castanea", i.e. the Chachapoyas almonds tree (Caryocar amygdaliferum Cav.). Granted, also great importance and ample space to the contributions of Simon de Tovar, some as famous as the description of the "Jacobean narcissus" (Sprekelia formosissima Herb.), considered the most accurate Renaissance Botany, that of the American nardo (Polyanthes tuberosa l.) and the coral tree (Erythrina coralloides D.c.). News and materials of Castañeda Juan pointed out aspects of plants known as the flower of the tree of the coral and the sweet varieties of Capsicum and its use in the form of paprika, or reported for the first time, including grass luisa (Aloysia citriodora Ort.) and zapotillo in Havana (Trichilia havanensis Jac.).
On the other hand, Clusius translated into latin the Tractado of the drugs and medicines of the Indias Orientales, with its plants debuxadas to the bivo, by Cristóbal de Acosta, and the medical history of stuff which are brought from our West Indies, Nicolás Monardes, which, as we shall see below, finished adding the other five books of his. It did not just a literal translation, it reordered the texts, summed up some chapters and others complemented by news, that in the case of Monardes come mostly from the works of Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo, Francisco López de Gómara and Pedro Cieza de León or his friends and correspondents, including Arias Montano, Tovar and Castañeda.
The Tractado de Acosta version appeared for the first time the year 1582 in Antwerp, published by Plantino, and had four reprints in the same city and printing, the last in 1632. The first two parts of the medical history of Monardes did in 1574, also printed in Antwerp by Plantino, and was reprinted without any significant change in 1579. Plantjin was also published in 1582 the version of the third part that Clusius had prepared in Frankfurt the year previous, and in the same "Officina Plantiniana", run after his death by his widow and his son-in-law Jan Moerentorff (Joannes Moretus), printed the year 1593 the joint edition of the three parties. As we have made strides, Clusius brought at the end of his life translations which had published works relating to the exotic natural history in a volume, entitled Exoticorum libri decem (1605). Of Monardes reproduced, of course, the Edition joint 1593 of the three parts of the medical history, but often forget that he added the texts or Latin versions of his five treaties: De rosa et eius Guggenheim. Succi rosarum temperature, nec non de rosis Persicis; Of malis citriis, aurantis ac limonis; the book [of] stone bezaar and Yerba escuerconera; the book of the snow and the cold bever; and the dialogue of the greatnesses of iron, and its medicinal virtues, i.e. all the print production of the physician and naturalist Sevillian, with the exception of two juvenile works. These five treaties, which had already been published several times in different languages out of Spain, were the first monographs on roses, citrus and therapeutic iron use, early diet on cold beverages text, book which diffused European materia medica in the employment of the Scorzonera hispanica l., introduced by the catalan doctor Pedro Carnicer, and which incorporated American bezoars, following the broadcast of the Asians, mainly due to the Portuguese García da Horta. The fact that Clusius included them in its volume clearly reflected opinion that had on the work of the caller "Hispalensis Medicus praestantissimus".
Rariorum aliquot stirpium per Hispanias observatarum history [...]. (Antverpiae; Ex officina Christophori Plantini, 1576).CLUSIUS, C. Rariorum aliquot stirpium per Hispanias observatarum Historia..., Antwerp, C. Plantin, 1576. The summary in latin of the works of Monardes published it for the first time in Antwerp, C. Plantin, 1574, with the title De simplicibus medicamentis ex Occidentali India delatis... (it included only the first part, but in subsequent editions it was adding the second and third). Latin synthesis of Acosta book initially appeared in Antwerp, C. Plantin, 1582, with the title of Aromatum et medicamentorum in India Orientali, reprinted also in several occasions. Rariorum plantarum history [...]. (Antverpiae; Ex officina Plantiniana, Apud Ioannem Moretum, 1601). Exoticorum libri decem [...], (Antverpiae, Ex officina Plantiniana Raphelengii, 1605). Subsequent Curae, seu non Plurimarum to cognitarum stirpium, peregrinorumque aliquot animalium descriptarum aut Novae Descriptiones [...]. (Antverpiae; Ex officina Plantiniana Raphelengii).Jordan of ASSO, I. Clarorum Hispaniensium atque exterorum Epistolae, IMP. Real, 1973. It contains letters of Arias Montano, Tovar y Castañeda to Clusius.
Alvarez LOPEZ, e. "Plants of America at the 16th-century European botanical", in Revista de Indias, vol. 6. (1945, 312-388).AUMÜLLER, S. "Bibliographie und Ikonographie" in Festschrift der 400jahrigen Wiederkehr wissenschaftlichen Tätigkeit von Carolus anlaslich Clusis (Charles de l'Escluse) in Pannoniscen Raum. (Esenstadt; Burgenländischen Landesarchiv, 1973, pp. (9-92).GUERRA, F. Nicolás Bautista Monardes. His life and work (ca. 1493-1588). (Mexico; Company of iron and steel of Monterrey Fundidora, 1961).HUNGER, F. w. T. "Escluse Charles (Carolus Clusius), 1526-1609" at Janus, vol. 31. (1927, pp. 138-151)-. Escluse Charles (Carolus Clusius) Nederlandsch Kruidkunge (1526-1609), 2 vols. (Gravenhage; M. Nijhoff, 1927-1942).Jordan of ASSO, Ignacio. Clarorum Hispaniensium atque exteriorum Epistolae cum notis et preafatione. (Caesaraugustae; Ex Typographia Regia, 1793).LÓPEZ ANDÚJAR, g. and FERNANDEZ NEGRI, M. A. "letters of Simon de Tovar botanist Charles l'Escluse". Translation and commentary, in Bulletin of the Spanish pharmacy history society, no. 36 (1985, pp. 203-212).LÓPEZ PIÑERO, J. M. et to the. Bibliographia Medica Hispánica, 1475-1950, Valencia, Institute documentary and historical science, 1987-1997--"Medicinal history of things which are brought from our West Indies" (1565-1574), of Nicolás Monardes. (Madrid; Ministry of health and consumption, 1989)--"The" new medicines"American on-site (1565-1574) of Nicolás Monardes', in Asclepius, no. 42. (1990, pp. 3-68)--science and technology in the Spanish society of the 16th and 17TH centuries. Barcelona, work, 1979-- and LOPEZ TERRADA, M. L. "American plants in Clusius relationship with Spanish naturalists", in the Spanish influence in the introduction in Europe of the American plants, 1493-1623. (Valencia; Institute of studies documentaries and historical science, 1997, pp. (66-103).
J. M. L. P.