Russian novelist, born in Moscow in 1821, and died in Petersburgo on February 9, 1881. On the death of his mother, his father - an aristocratic, decadent, extravagant and fortified - doctor made him enter in the school of engineering of Petersburgo, while the young Feodor already showed a marked inclination towards the letters. Hence the reluctance with which rushed his engineering studies, in sharp contrast to the voracity with which was reading who would consolidate its initiatory bookish formation (Schiller, Balzac, Hugo and Hoffmann).
When he was eighteen years old, his father was murdered, victim of a few servants who had bullied to inhumane extremes. Two years later, overwhelmed by the scientific rigor and military discipline, she completed her studies and stayed in Petersburgo. Then he survived thanks to the translations was made. Around this time he wrote his first work, the epistolary novel poor people (1846), which had a good reception by part of the public and some devoted critics, such as Bielinskiand Nekrasov. Despite having a degree in engineering, he disparaged this imposed profession and gave himself fully to literature.
That same year 1846 saw appearing the second novel of Dostoevsky, double, in which the story of a psychic split begins to prefigure a major - if not the key - tematico-estructurales his vast fictional output currents: psychological introspection. Two years later, came out of the hollanders White Nights (1848), sentimental novel in which amorous fantasies of a young dreamer confuse reality with desire. Between, had appeared one minor novel, the Patron Saint Joziaika (1847).
1848 data, also, weakened heart, and 1849, Niétochka Nezvánova. Last year, accused of having taken part in a conspiracy of socialist intellectuals, Dostoevsky is sentenced to death. The same day of check execution arrived the pardon of the zar Nicolás I, who commuted the sentence by four years of forced labor in Siberia. This egregious deportation severely affected his mental balance and your physical health, violated by frequent epileptic seizures; It was printed memory in a later story, titled memories of the House of the dead (1861-1862), who came to impress successor Nicolás I, Alejandro II.
After this period of confinement, Dostoevsky was forced to join a regiment of riflemen Siberian at Semipalatinks. At that time (1857), married a poor widow, mother of a son, which did not become happy, while the own novelist had her "the woman more honest, nobler and more generous" to few had known. After another long period of residence in Tver, he received authorization to return to Petersburgo, where he printed other two novels, the village of Stepanchikovo and its inhabitants (1859) and the dream of the uncle (1859). In them, humour caustic and corrosive, bordering on the grotesque, realizes good old customs of his country and its people.
Despite its literary fecundity and facilities which was to publish his works, Dostoevsky was beset by severe economic difficulties. He then started to collaborate on media companies, such as time magazine, founded by his brother Mijail. In 1862 he published one of his best works, humiliated and offended, where it explores the deep recesses of the soul painfully human.
Full of debts, in 1864 he founded the newspaper era, whose short career not cure him of his monetary losses, sadly drowned by the disappearance, that same year, his wife and her son. At that time also died her brother Mijail. These irreparable losses forged in Dostoevsky a stoic character that moved him to study the springs of the human soul before the inevitable fatality.
Notes from the underground (1865), well received by the critics and readers, not took you of their constant financial troubles. In this novel, the frustrated redemption of a prostitute illustrates the thesis that the reason is not able to penetrate inside of others, and even in their own. In 1866, the publication of crime and punishment began a series of stories that would win him a mighty literary reputation. However, the economic solvency not arrived, even when, in 1867, his novel the player came to confirm the exceptional quality of his writings. Recently married, then, with Ana Grigorievna, her young Court Reporter (Dostoyevsky was forty-one years of age, and she with twenty-one), was compelled to abandon a Russia which had almost as many creditors as readers.
Malviviendo meagre aid that arrived from his native country, he traveled throughout Western Europe, visiting Germany (Dresden, Hamburg and Baden-Baden), Switzerland (Geneva and Vevey), and Italy (Florence). In the course of this voluntary exile, was born a girl who died a few days later; Dostoyevsky then fell into near dementia depression, and spent in the play the little money that was left. On top of suffering he returned to suffer epileptic seizures, which aggravated both its health and its ailing economy. But the birth of a second child helped give you strength to go forward; and thus, in 1868 it gave to the printing press the idiot, one of his best novels (which, however, was poorly received by critics). A year later, published the eternal husband.
The emergence of the possessed (1870), the death of God, nihilism-centered earned him, at last, an economic benefit that would allow him to return to Russia. There, 1873 (date in which appeared, also, his novel Bobok), we started to publish the diary of a writer, that serial, in the reactionary newspaper the citizen, then it would continue, as independent magazine, between 1876 and 1881. In the confessions of their everyday existence and her rich interior life, Dostoyevsky began to present itself as a sort of spiritual guide of his countrymen, illuminated by a sudden return to Christianity. Aside from these personal considerations, the journal was adequate space for the publication of narrations as Christmas Eve with Christ (1876) and the submissive (1877). In the same vein, a previous novel (the teenager, 1875) had already anticipated a populist Christian mysticism.
Between 1879 and 1890, Dostoyevsky wrote that he considered his masterpiece, the Brothers Karamazov, where hatreds and rancor between a father and his sons, and the extremes that can lead an intellectual and dehumanized, atheism are just outgunned from the purity and faith of an innocent creature. At that time, Fiodor Dostoievsky happened to be the novelist most loved and admired in his country, and his fame exceeded even those of authors such as Turgenev and Tolstoy. As "Patriarch of the Russian letters", on June 8, 1880 was commissioned to deliver a speech in the lavish homage to Pushkin. On January 28, 1881, a brain haemorrhage ended his days. His death was an irreparable loss in the cultural scene of Russia, who mourned him in a solemn and excited obsequies.