Spanish dancer, whose real name is Antonio Esteve Rodenas, born on November 16, 1936 in Elda, Alicante, and died in Madrid on July 20, 2004. Son of a bricklayer, at age eleven began to work to help his family as buttons and as an apprentice in the Madrid daily ABC. His fondness for dancing was attending a show directed by Pilar López. It began in a variety show at the Circo Price in Madrid, where he discovered the dancer.
After taking lessons from Manolo Vargas, principal dancer of the company of Pilar López, at the beginning of the 50 entered, starring in the world the three-cornered hat, witch love or concierto de Aranjuez. This stage is his first creation, dream. By Pilar Council adopted the artistic name of Gades.
As an actor, he starred in a sacramental entitled crazy hospital and Alfredo Mañas wrote for him the history of the tarantos. In 1962 he went to Rome to help Antón Dolin to assemble a wrap for the Rome Opera ballet. They commissioned three dances of García Lorca to an anthology of ballet. He was choreographer and dancer, along with Carla Fracci, of Festival Due mondi of Spoleto, directed by Giancarlo Menotti, where intervened in the version of Carmen. He made his debut at the Scala Theatre on December 20, 1962 as principal dancer and teacher of the Corps de ballet. He took part in several television programs in Italy and filmed a movie with Vittorio Gassman. Your stay at la Scala lasted nine months.
Back in Spain, he took part in the soldier's tale, and the history of the tarantos, by Alfredo Mañas. In 1963 he filmed Los Tarantos, directed by Rovira Beleta. That year, in the Hall Los tarantos of Barcelona, imposed its revolutionary idea to remove superfluous embellishments to your dance, with a predominance of black, to get to a ballet beyond dance. After a great success of six months at the Spanish Pavilion of the exhibition of New York (1964), for which he received the Gold Medal of tourism merit, on November 19, 1965 premiered at the teatro de la Zarzuela production Don Juan, with texts by Alfredo Mañas and music by Antón García Abril. The failure of this mise en scene forced him to work in the Madrid the Corral de la Moreria tablao.
In 1968 he returned to la Scala in Milan and was organized an evening that involved Carla Fracci and Rudolf Nureyev. In 1969 he returned to Paris in representation of Spain at the theatre des Nations, getting the Critics Award for the best show of the season. This was one of the first appointments of his own ballet (a cooperative of more than one dozen of members).
He participated with his company in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the House of Spain in New York and, alone, did the choreography of El amor brujo with the Corps de ballet of the Opera of Chicago. With his company, in 1970 it triumphed in the Paris Odeon, success shared with Paco de Lucía on guitar. In November he started a tour with the Witcher love for Middle East and Argentina. This representation was in Spain in 1971, during 1972 by several countries in Europe, America, Japan, Iran, Morocco, and finally, in the Palacio de la Música of Barcelona. On his return he settled in Altea.
In 1974 he presented in Rome weddings of blood, with music by Emilio de Diego, and also brought it to Spain. Tired after 23 years dedicated to dance, in June 1975 he announced his retirement. A few months later, due to the impact of five death sentences signed by Franco, dissolved the company and retired. Between 1976 and 1977 early shot with Mario Camus and his partner Pepa Flores (Marisol) days of the past. In 1977 and 1978 returned to dance during the tour that made Alicia Alonso by United States and Cuba, premiering in La Habana Ad libitum with the Ballet Nacional de Cuba.
In 1978 he accepted the position of director of the Spanish National Ballet, trying to recover the great choreographers. He represented Bodas de sangre, Fandango, hat cocked, the Witcher love portrait of woman, etc. It achieved significant successes in the Berlin Opera, the Spoleto Festival (July 1979), the Cervantino Festival in Mexico and the tour of Spain and America. It was stopped by the Culture Minister, Ricardo de la Cierva, in 1980, while the Ballet for lack of legal entity is dissolved. Together with the components of the Ballet, they abandoned it as a sign of solidarity, created the independent group of dance artists (GIADA), debuting in August 1980 in Pamplona, to follow with a national tour and by America. On his return in December, it began filming with Carlos Saura's blood wedding, which is actor and choreographer. The sudden death of the Manager of the GIADA, Alberto Larios, in February 1981, the tour suspension and internal problems precipitated rupture of the group to leave your address Gades in September 1981. The dancer returned to work in Venezuela along with a few members of the group.
It began filming of Carmen, under the orders of Saura, in February 1983. The ballet of the same name opens in Madrid in March 1983. With is production got the Oro Pegaso in the Festival of the two worlds of Spoleto (July 1984), Medal of the summer theatrical Veronense (August 1984) and silver mask for dance in Campione D' Italy (October 1984).
In September 1985, he began to roll with Saura Witcher love, Laura de el Sol and Cristina Hoyos. His brother Enrique, dancer known by Enrique Esteve, died in April 1987 as a result of a stab wound. That same year died his father. Both losses affected him deeply. In December, she participated in the representation of blood wedding, in acts of commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the creation of the Spanish National Ballet at teatro de la Zarzuela. Meanwhile, preparing his fire show, with choreography based film Witcher love, with Stella Arauzo with director Saura. The work was premiered in late January 1989 at the Paris Châtelet theatre. Then he started a tour of Japan, Hong Kong, Turkey, Switzerland, Germany, Spain (3 months at the teatro Monumental de Madrid) and Italy (January-March 1990).
In January 1991 he moved to Havana to receive treatment for a medical condition of column in the Centre of research medical Cimex. Once recovered, in November, continued his tour with Carmen and fire by Japan and by the end of this dissolved the company. For the National Ballet de Nancy, France, in March 1992 he rode blood wedding choreography; in August 1992, he did the same for the National Ballet of Cuba.
Withdrawn to prepare his next ballet, in 1994, he returned to work with Saura Flamenco and on 20 December of that year with his rebuilt company led to Genoa Fuenteovejuna, adaptation of Manuel Caballero Bonald on the text of Lope de Vega, begun in 1979. Coinciding with the beginning of the filming of Flamenco, in January 1995 Gades started a tour of Japan with their latest production, presented in April at the Maestranza de Sevilla. At that time announced its intention to withdraw to prepare young artists. Another project, pending for 30 years was to take to the stage Don Quixote. After the representations of Fuenteovejuna and Carmen Santander, Grenada and Peralada, it postponed until September his tour through Argentina and Chile, since he underwent surgery in August.
In 1995 he received the honor award of the Argentine Government by cementing cultural ties between the two Nations. That year he represented in Fuenteovejuna and Carmen Bilbao, and Barcelona Fuenteovejuna. He participated in 1996 at the Ravenna Festival (Italy) with Carmen. He represented Fuenteovejuna by different countries of the world from November 1995 until March 1997, in Italy, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Cuba, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina and Indonesia. In September 1996, he returned to Barcelona, where he represented Fuenteovejuna and Carmen.
The December 11, 1995 recipient of choreographic direction of the Association of Directors of scene (ADE) for his work in Fuenteovejuna. In December 1988, along with other choreographers as Carolyn Carlson, Roland Petit or Alvyn Ayle, interpreted for the Italian television program a choreographer, a city, where he represented the city of Venice.
Supporter of the theories of the dancer Vicente Escudero, he never saw onstage, he was considered in the mid-1960s as his successor with Antonio, which he rejected. It did not accept to be defined as an artist; He preferred "worker of the dance". His hobby was painting, which started in 1961 and studied for a year in Paris. Described it his painting as a constructivist, very simple, pure and geometric.
Under the influence of his father was Communist and joined the party communist of the peoples of Spain, led by Ignacio Gallego. He openly supported the Cuban regime, and actively intervened in acts in favour of Cuba and against the American blockade. He spent long periods on the island and declared one Cuban more. Shortly before his death, in June 2004, the President of Cuba, Fidel Castro, imposed the order José Martí, the maximum award that grants the Council of State of the Caribbean Republic.
It also received the Medal of the circle of Bellas Artes de Madrid Prize Vicente Escudero of dance and choreography, award Carmen Amaya, the national prize for theatre in 1970 to the best Spanish ballet, the prize of the great theatre of Havana (2 January 1990), Luigi Tani Award (April 1990) and the prestigious prize street of Alcala of the Festival Flamenco in Madrid (2002).
In 1964 he married the actress Marujita Díaz, which lasted 20 months, although he got a divorce in 1982. After its union with the dancer of TVE Sandra Lebrouch, in 1969, he began a relationship with Pilar San Clemente, dancer from your company with whom he had two children, Elsa (June, 1969) and Ignacio (1971). Separated in 1971 and had romances with actress Gina Lollobrigida, the model María de los Reyes Escudero and Caroline Coom painter. Together with Pepa Flores, Marisol, since 1973, separated in 1986. They had contracted a civil marriage in Cuba in 1982, sponsored by Fidel Castro and Alicia Alonso. Of the union were born three daughters, María, Tamara and Celia. He married Daniela Frey in 1988 and they separated in 1993.
In December 2004, in the course of the 19th Havana International Festival of Ballet of, surrendered a heartfelt tribute to Gades in the Antillean capital with the staging of the choreography of Bodas de sangre, by Lorca, created by himself for the National Ballet of Cuba and often led to the tables of that same scenario.
In March 2005, his ashes were inhumed in a family ceremony at the mausoleum dedicated to fighters of the II front Oriental Frank País, in Santiago de Cuba, in the call Sierra Maestra, as I said the last will of the dancer. In September of that same year, on the other hand, the Teatro de la Zarzuela de Madrid presented a tribute that was intended to make in a first moment in the artist's life, but what precipitated his death made impossible; in it, Pilar López, Sara Baras and Aída Gómez were the protagonists of the show "50 years of Spanish dance", which also featured other figures such as Paco Ibañez and the singer "El Lebrijano".