Novelist, screenwriter and director of American cinema, born in Portland (USA)UU.), on September 27, 1947.
When he was two years of age, his father, Donald King, he abandoned the family, forced the mother of the future writer, Nellie Ruth, through various North American cities in search of work. Finally, in 1958, the family found accommodation in Durham, population where Stephen King spent his adolescence. He studied in the Instituto Lisbon Falls, where is devoted to the stories of terror and became an early writer in this genre. In his free time consumed usually novels and comics about gruesome Affairs, also devoted to movies with this type of content.
The Comics Review magazine in 1967 published his first story, I was a teenage grave robber. This story attracted the attention of the editors of the publication of Startling Mistery Stories, which gave to his following creations, made that you encouraged him to continue his literary career, thus developing their vocation. By this time, the writer got married and thereafter led a life of deprivation from which he definitely after the publication in 1974 of the novel Carrie. This work renewed the landscape of American literature of terror and gave the author a passport to fame. Three years later he got a new success with the glow. And were taken to the cinema, and began a relationship between King and the industry of Hollywood which will be satisfactory to both.
The dead zone (1979) and eyes of fire (1980), despite the controversy that originated among literary critics, were well received among readers, a fact that will be repeated with all of his novels. King was proclaimed a popular writer, which does not aim to achieve high creative dimensions, but, rather, to attract a loyal audience that establishing a relationship an accomplice through terror.
Considered a sure value in the publishing market, King requires some fees increasing, which has allowed built a Gothic mansion in which he lives with his wife and children. Titles such as It, hex, the eyes of the dragon, the threshold of night, the dark half and the cycle of the werewolf millionaires, got sales figures which led the writer to establish a repetitive subject lines, but good reception among the public. There are several novels by King in which there are children or teenagers, in which the author delves into the psychology of those ages: their fears, their hopes and their intimate conflicts. These adolescents, on the other hand, tend to be endowed with paranormal powers. This should be added a stark presentation of violence, in the form of horrific murders, executed with absolute visceral.
One of their most important income sources are the rights of film adaptation of his novels. The relationship between Stephen King film has been so close that, in addition to signing some scripts, it has even proved luck in the address field.
So, amid the riotous movie scene of the 1970s emerged Carrie (1976), by Brian de Palma, which took almost identical effect among the public that the eponymous novel in that rested. The sensationalism of the tape delighted viewers, and became overnight the morning the work of King appealing material for these specialized agents of the producers in acquiring copyright.
The next novel on the list was considered by the author as a bad imitation of the Dracula of Bram Stoker, but that did not stop that you become finally a long soap opera, the mystery of Salem's Lot (1978). The filmmaker Tobe Hooper, known for his film the killing of Texas (1974), was the man chosen to direct this project, ambitious and quite uneven.
King lived the premiere of the shining (1980) as its definitive consolidation, due largely to the fact that the director to film his novel was none other than Stanley Kubrick.
Christine (1983) was directed by John Carpenter from a screenplay by Bill Philips that sums up the best of the text of King. This story of a killer car life of its own that year on screens matches another adaptation of a novel by writer, Cujo (1983), by Lewis Teague. Both films have shown that King is in fashion. His name is mentioned in a number of articles and a large number of followers try to imitate his literary style.
The film the dead zone (1983), by David Cronenberg, manages to recover good quality tone required by the writings of King in his cinematographic transposition. This film, starring Christopher Walken - the role of the Seer John Smith-, Brooke Adams and Martin Sheen, the main includes significant variations with respect to the original work, perhaps the very definition of "dead zone", plus close to a psychic illusion in the tape than in the book, where, as it is customary in King, prevail the parapsychological elements.
Between being an author of fashion and overexploitation medium for a successful writer, a very short distance. The succession of films made by children of the corn (1984), eyes of fire (1984), blue fear (1985) and the eyes of the cat (1985) plunged into mediocrity and low budget to the writings of King, in which already do not seem interested filmmakers of prestige, but rather beginners or professionals in second row, leaning on a low budgetthey intend to bring forward a business based almost exclusively in the name of the writer.
Rob Reiner takes into account only its artistic possibilities in melodrama account with me (1986), inspired by the story the body. The times in which filmmakers like George A. Romero resorted to King for projects such as Creepshow (1982) seem to have been far. This reveals that the intention of the writer to take the reins as director in the rise of the machines (1987), genuine catalogue of terrifying passions of its maker is not accidental.
After the premiere of pursued (1987), translation of one of the novels of science fiction signed by King the nickname of Richard Bachman and performed to the greater glory of Arnold Schwarzenegger, the writer recovers the success on screens with the living Cemetery (1988), directed by Mary Lambert. Like the novel on which it is based, this film covers the more commercial side of terror, based on the free sensationalism and constant references to adolescence. The audience that filled the halls to see this movie seems not very affected by their lack of quality and feels fully rewarded for the surprises offered by the plot.
In order to retrieve the prestige among critics and the adult audience, King applauds the idea that his friend Rob Reiner carried the film Misery (1990). The result may not be satisfactory. The protagonist, Kathy Bates, obtains the Oscar of the Academy in Hollywood, an award that, ultimately, King feels like yours.
Unfortunately, the next title of the films of King, Sleepwalkers (1992), of Mick Garris, is so mediocre as cemetery living 2 (1992), Mary Lambert, which puts in question the name of the writer in Hollywood. Television, as evidenced by the eight episodes of the series (1993) Golden years or the miniseries The Stand, seems more appropriate to release new adaptations of his works. It is on television where some of King's novels are images with a success of hearing comparable to their best film versions.
At the beginning of the 1990s proliferate extremely horror writers. If it is necessary to mark a trend in the tastes of the public in this period, you can highlight the attraction for the paranormal content and an increasingly clear exposition of the violent content. Both ends are, without a doubt, from the world of Stephen King, whose success remains stable, despite competition from authors such as Clive Barker. In what refers to its relationship with the audiovisual world, King continues to sell the rights of all his works, either at the cinema or on television.
Accused by his detractors of being excessively commercial, neglect the formal and stylistic care required by any literary work, King is limited to ignore criticism, trusting his prestige to the charts. Despite its shortcomings as Narrator, there is no doubt that has managed to hit the target of popular tastes, relaunching the terrifying genre and renovating all of its contents with unquestionable talent.
In 1998 he published a sack of bones, another novel of the genre, to which was added the Dark Tower, in 1999. In March 2000, he published the first novel to be read only on the Internet. The e-book, Riding the Bullet, only costs $2.50 (430 pesetas). Distributed in an encoded text file in such a way that it could not copied or printed: you could only read sitting before the computer or using any of the modern PDAs. Months later, King presented a new cybernetic project, a story line, serials that could be downloaded on any computer. However, the response from users was not too enthusiastic and the author decided to withdraw the novel after the sixth installment.
Address and guion:1987: rise of the machines.
Actor:1981: the Knights of the moto.1982: Creepshow. 1987: Creepshow 2.
Guion:1985: the eyes of the cat; Blue fear. 1992: Sleepwalkers.
Argumento:1976: Carrie.1979: Phantasma II. 1980: The glow. 1982: Creepshow. 1983: Christine; CuJo; The dead zone. 1984: Children of the corn; Eyes of fire. 1985: The eyes of the cat; Blue fear. 1986: He has with me. 1987: Perseguido.1989: animal cemetery. 1990: The mass grave; That; Misery; The hell cat. 1992: Grass cutter; Sonambulos.1993: Children of the corn II; The dark half. Needful things. 1995: Eclipse total; The mangler.
Literature of United States of America.
HORSTING, Jessie: Stephen King at the movies. New York. New American Library. 1986.
URRERO PEÑA, Guzmán: "Stephen King: the architecture of horror". Rev. All screens, no. 12 (November 1994).
WINTER, Douglas E.: Stephen King: The art of darkness. New York. New American Library. 1984.