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Biography of Juan Mora Fernández (1784-1854)


Politician and lawyer Costa Rica San José-born on July 12, 1784 and died in that same city on December 16, 1854. He was the first President of the Republic of Costa Rica after the proclamation of independence (1824-1829; 1829-1833).

He actively participated in the struggle for the independence of Costa Rica. In 1821 he took part in the Commission responsible for the drafting of a constitutional bill that should lay the foundations for the Organization of the new independent State. Work of the Commission was the so-called Fundamental interim Social Pact or Pact of Concord, approved on December 1, 1821 and which would remain in force, by way of interim Constitution, until 1824. During these years, Mora took part in the civil struggles that confronted the two Costa Rican pro-independence models: on the one hand, the Republican and progressive faction based in San José - that Mora was one of the main leaders - and, on the other, the royalist faction, linked to the interests of the colonial aristocracy of the city of Carthage. In April 1823, after the battle of Ochomongo, the Republicans managed to impose their model of State and Costa Rica became a Republic of federalist character. In 1824 the provisional Junta of Government of San José elected President Mora Fernández. This was, therefore, the first head of State of the Central American country after the effective proclamation of independence.

In 1824 the Concord Pact was replaced, under the rule of Mora, by the Fundamental Law of Costa Rica, Constitution which established a federal regime and in whose drafting participated decisively President. Upon the expiry of its mandate in 1829, Mora was again elected to the Presidency; He held the judiciary until 1833. During the eight years of his Government, Mora was confronted with the perpetual internal instability created by the clash of federalists and royalists, between San José - where had moved the capital - and Carthage. On the other hand, the country suffered a continuous threat of invasion due to the territorial ambitions of its neighbors, particularly Nicaragua. The Government of Mora introduced a series of important progressive reforms to modernize and democratize political life and society Costa Ricans. But, without a doubt, its main task was the help the creation and consolidation of the institutions of the independent Costa Rica. To the creation of the Mint of the country is, in addition.

After his second term did not get the re-election, but it maintained its influence in the political life of the country. In 1837 he was appointed Vice President during the first Government of Braulio Carrillo (1835-1837). In 1838 Carrillo launched a coup that ended with constitutional guarantees. Mora objected strongly to the dictatorship, which earned him exile. After the fall of Carrillo in 1842, he returned to Costa Rica. However, he had definitely left politics and, until his death, which occurred when he was seventy years, he worked as a judge. In 1848 he was proclaimed distinguished son of the fatherland by the National Congress.


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