American physician, Nobel Prize for Physiology and medicine in 1934 by the discovery of a therapeutic method to cure pernicious anemia, a blood disease.
He was born on February 6, 1892 in Stoughton (Wisconsin), and died in Brookline (Massachusetts) in 1987. He studied medicine at the universities of Oregon and Harvard, and received her equivalent to the Bachelor's degree from Harvard University in 1920. He gained his doctorate two years later. She then worked as an associate professor at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston and was a professor at Harvard University from 1923 until 1958.
Murphy studied diabetes miellitus and investigated certain diseases of the blood, especially anemias. Based on the works of George Hoyt Whipple, who studied the anemia in animals and showed that the liver was an organ is essential in the production of certain blood components; It also showed that dogs which caused an artificial anaemia by bleeding much more reluctant when fed them with liver. Using this information as the basis and with the discovery by George r. Minot that pernicious anemia consisted of a progressive decrease in the number of red blood cells, increasing the size of these, Murphy and Minot devised together a treatment to combat it, which basically consisted in feed with 250 g of liver patients a day. The results were very good and were subsequently prepared prepared with liver extracts can produce the same effects, and thus combat a disease until then deadly. This treatment was used until 1948, when isolated vitamin B12 (see vitamin) from extracts of liver and found their beneficial effects.
The demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment of pernicious anemia with liver extract earned him the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine in 1934, shared with his colleagues Minot and Whipple.
He wrote the Anemia work in Practice: Pernicious Anemia, which was published in 1939. Murphy has to his credit several awards and distinctions, such as the bronze medal from the American Medical Association. He is a member of numerous associations and medical societies around the world, such as the Deutsche Akademie Sciences Leopoldina.