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Biography of Nikolái Ivánovich Nóvikov (1744-1818)


Writer and Russian journalist, born in Tichvinskoie (Moscow) in 1744, and died in Moscow in 1818. Staunch defender of press freedom and the right of the writer to publish all their criticism, edited from 1769 a satirical newspaper, the drone, which censored in acrimony all the vices and defects of the society of his time. In 1770, official censorship wanted to put a stop to the journalistic satires of Novikov, but the closure of the drone only served to journalist thrown founded other publications of a similar nature: the painter (1772-1773) and bag (1774).

Meanwhile, cultivated the philology and history: in 1772 he published an essay in historical dictionary of Russian writers, and in 1773 Russian history library, a collection of historical texts.

Established in Moscow from 1773, he rented there the University Press and since it launched another periodical, Russian news. After the Pugachev revolt, in 1775 Novikov enlisted between Freemasons and addressed other literary and educational activities: he founded more newspapers, published educational manuals, translated to writers and philosophers illustrated most relevant (v. gr., Diderot, Rousseau and Lessing), and wrote satirical stories - Russian Proverbs (1782) - and treated - on trade (1783).

Accused of conspiring against the Government of his country, was arrested, imprisoned and sentenced to death; but in 1792 the penalty was commuted him by fifteen years in prison. Held in the Schlusselburg prison, to the death of Catherine II (1796) was released by Paul I, who tried to make amends to Novikov fell down at his feet.

It is because you did not get authorization to do so, or because he wanted it by own decision, the truth is that he abandoned his literary activity since he was released.


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