Novelist and French philosopher, name François Donatien Alphonse, born and died in Paris. He belonged to a noble family and was educated by the Jesuits, but since 1763 it became mired in a series of scandals that led him to spend thirty years of his life in jail. In prison he wrote most of his works, among which mention: dialogue between a priest and a dying man (1782), the 120 days of Sodom (1785), Justine, or the misfortunes of virtue (1788), Aline and Valcour (1795), the new Justine followed the story of Juliette, her sister (1797), philosophy in the bedroom (1795) and crimes of love (1800).
The books that most directly discuss philosophical issues are: dialogue between a priest and a dying man and the philosophy in the bedroom. In the first, Sade exposes the summary of all the arguments of the rawer atheism and materialism by the mouth of a dying man and even lashes out against the Rationalist Deism defined as the new ideological instrument developed for the benefit of the bourgeoisie. Dialogue is going outlining the philosophy of nature, thinking sadiano kernel. She has the same need of Vice to virtue. In another work, the philosophy in the bedroom, Sade shows preference for Vice and destruction, theme that it lies at the base of all his novels. Vice is virtue higher because it melts in physical pleasure. If nature with the torments inflicted on the creatures, shows his own preference for the destruction and legitimizes the tendency to evil present in man, the very notion of evil shows problems in a system like Sade that does not support freedom in man.Sade has been considered in many different ways by the criticism: as writer obscene, compiler of the first catalogue "scientist" of the sexual perversions, rebel, revolutionary, denier of nature, as also its exalting. But Sade has a specific interest in philosophical culture as a point of arrival and checking of the contradictions of the atheistic materialism of the 18th century. The conflict raised by the ineradicable human selfishness, Sade concludes the futility of the attempt of the philosophes by reconciling nature and reason, happiness and virtue. Determinism makes impossible the construction of a new ethic.