Biography of Abahai (1592-1643)

Manchu leader, born in November of 1592 and died on 21 September of the year 1643, ruled the State jurchida-manchu from the year 1626, being the main architect of the fall of the Chinese of the Ming dynasty and the implementation in the manchu dynasty Qing (1644) imperial throne, which would govern in China until the 20th century.

Prince clan Aisin Gioro belonging to the tribe tungu or jurchida of the Chien-chou, Abahai was the ninth son of Nurhaci, the warlord who unified under its mandate to all the Manchu tribes, and who happened upon his death (1626) after overcoming the opposition of his brothers. Abahai continued expansionary policy of his father which purpose was to undermine the power of the Ming Empire in its northern regions. In this context is the series of campaigns launched by warlord just ascend to power: first in Korea (1626-27); then on the Northwest Territories, in order to attract to his side to the Mongol tribes there established; and from 1629 already attacking Chinese hinterland. Abahai had tried at first to negotiate with the Governors of the northern Chinese provinces, taking advantage of the precarious loyalty of these towards the Court of Beijing, but the deposition of his interlocutor, Yuan Chung-huan, led him to opt for a direct attack on the capital; the latter nor succeeded, since a Ming army hastily assembled managed to stop it, and Abahai army had to withdraw after several attempts to their bases of departure.

Since these failures on the battlefield, the manchu warlord decided to change tactics, patiently waiting for the situation of internal chaos of the Ming Empire, in the process of decomposition, to facilitate the task of the invasion. While attending these events, Abahai took steps to legitimize its claim to the Chinese throne. Thus, in 1635 took officially the title of "Great Khan" of the Mongols, which implied to be declared legitimate successor of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), and the following year named its dynasty with the name of Daicing (great light), best known for his translation into Chinese: Qing. On the other hand, he ushered in his State in Chinese elements, and some of them reached the rank of Royal advisors, which no doubt acquainted him with the customs of the country.

After failing another attempt of conquest of Beijing in 1638, Abahai watched as their plans began to be fulfilled at the beginning of the Decade of 1640. The powerful Chinese military governors were fighting each other the power vacuum left by the central Government, and in the course of these struggles, one of them (Wu Sangui, 1612-1678), enlisted the help of the Manchus to defeat his rival. In this way, Abahai could open passage with his troops until Beijing and in fact become a referee in the Chinese political situation; However, it did not see culminated his work, as he died a year before the official founding of the Manchu Empire (1644), being his son and successor, Fulin, who became the first official Emperor of the new dynasty under the name of Shunzi (1638-1661).