Biography of Emir de al-Andalus Abd Allah (844-912)

Seventh Umayyad emir of Al - Andalus (888-912), brother of al-Mundhir, born in Cordoba in the year 844 and died in the same city on 15 October of the year 912. His reign was dotted with continuous seditions and bloody wars between Arab nobility, the muladíes and the Berbers who ended up wearing the Emirate at all levels, to the point that upon his death the Umayyad authority had been reduced to the capital and its surroundings. The rebel Ibn Hafsunextended his power by all the Andalusia low, since it brought together all the protests and sedition against the Emirate of Cordoba, the outcome of which was the creation of a large number of territories or independent of the authority of Cordoba manors.

Crisis of the cordovan Emirate

Upon access to the throne, Abd Allah returned to confront the secessionist problem of the muladi Ibn Hafsun, who had returned to take advantage of a stroke of Fortune (the sudden death of the previous emir al - Mundhir in the siege of Bobastro), to extend its power throughout the South of al - Andalus, to which were added all revolts that were arising against the central powerMurcia, Jaén, Ecija, Seville, Granada, Badajoz, etc. In addition, both the Arabs and Berbers undertook their own uprisings which concluded with the creation of a whole constellation of independent Lordships by all the Emirate; autonomous States that refused to recognize the authority of the new emir. A few months of his accession to the throne, Abd Allah attended powerless the break-up de-facto Emirate: Tudela and Tarazona was fief of the muladi Muhammad ben Lope, Chief of the Banu Qasi; Huesca and Lleida were dominated by the also muladi Ibn Tawil: Santaver district was in the hands of the Berber Musa ben Zennun, as also Toledo; Murcia and Lorca obeyed the muladi Daywam ben Ishaq; the province of Elvira was controlled by the Arab qaysi Yahya ben Yahya. And so until reduced to Córdoba and its surroundings the effective power of Abd Allah.

Initially, Abd Allah tried the path of diplomacy with his greatest enemy, Ibn Hafsún, he/she asked his loyalty and recognition in Exchange for being named Governor of the provinces of Reyyo, Elvira and Jaén, whose task should be helped by an officer of the Court. This circumstances provided the wily Maverick once more to reinforce their position and continue in its efforts to establish an independent State of Cordoba and even overthrow the emir and proclaim single emir of al - Andalus.

In the year 889, Abd Allah began his first campaign in any rule against Ibn Hafsun, whose troops defeated the army of that shameful way, which meant that the prestige of Ibn Hafsun grew as the foam after learning the outcome of the campaign. Ibn Hafsun, Bobastro, camp met suddenly filled with people coming from all points of al - Andalus, willing to join its fight against the power of Córdoba. Abd Allah was forced to do what any other emir had done before: seek the signing of a truce with Ibn Hafsun to avoid greater evils. Ibn Hafsun, true to his custom, broke its commitment to Cordoba to follow its policy of harassment, but the military reaction of Abd Allah was blunt, breaking him, for the first time since long time ago, a severe defeat at the battle of Poley. The emir pursued with boldness the rebel to Bobastro, where it again become strong. Thereafter, the tactic employed by Ibn Hafsun would continue harassing Córdoba until he/she could no more or is forced to ask for a truce or peace, which systematically, rushed to break to return to start the same process again. Yet, at the same time that Abd Allah began a slow strengthening of its position, Ibn Hafsun lost force and above all the unconditional support of his followers, this last situation which was aggravated when the rebel embraced religion Christian in 899. Such a decision made him win the sympathy of the Christian kingdoms and the mozarab population, but lost its main support base: the muladíes. Ibn Hafsun was becoming increasingly alone and at the mercy of attacks, increasingly frequent, Cordoba troops. Even so, he/she managed to withstand unscathed until his death in the year 917.

In the cities of Seville and Elvira emerged serious conflicts between Arab and muladíes that began as simple struggles for possession of power and ended in bloody clashes. Elvira, were the muladíes who rose up against the Arab Lord of the province, Yahya ibn Suqala, who was killed. The war that broke out between both factions benefited Abd Allah, especially when the Arab faction managed to overrule the muladi and remove it. In Seville, the muladíes ran the same fate, and were virtually exterminated by the two most powerful Arab families of the city: the Banu Hachchach and the Banu Jaldum who finally faced each other. It won the contest first, which remained as absolute owners of the city until the enthronement of Abd al-Rahman III in the year 912.

Wars against the Christians of the North

Abd Allah authority on border marks was practically non-existent, but even so, pushes the Christian kingdoms, especially the astur-leones, were not all positive to be expected due to the opposition of all independent of the upper mark wrens and Media, interested in defending his newly-conquered domain. The emir Abd Allah benefited indirectly from some contingents of troops ready to not have to cede a span of terrain and that, in addition to not being paid by the coffers of the Emirate, on multiple occasions were the first to raise the battle to the Christian kingdoms.

In the year 897, muladi Lope ibn Muhammad ben Lope, Member of the Banu Qasi, made a foray by lands of Barcelona, which sacked the castle of magazine Ausona and had an encounter with the count Wilfred the hairy, who died a few days later of as a result of wounds received in the battle. The Chief of the Banu Qasi, Muhammad ben Lope, snatched to Alfonso III (866-910) 904 baths Castle and built the fortress of Grañón. Two years later, his son engaged in a hard struggle for the possession of the territory with the Navarrese King Sancho Garcés I (905-926), war that followed his brother Abd Allah, who inflicted a disastrous defeat in 911 to the Navarrese King. So did other muladi, Muhammad al - Tawil, Lord of Huesca, who by that date ventured throughout the Valley of the Segre and swept all the populations found in their path: Oliola, Gualter, Alaguirre, etc. This itself, the following year, defeated the Barcelona count Suñer, after having completely exhausted the Tàrrega Valley.

Finally, in 903, a rich and pious cordobés, Isam al - Jawlami, decided to build a naval expedition against Mallorca at your own risk, retaking the island which was outside of the orbit of the Umayyads since the days of the reign of Abd al-Rahman II (822.852).

Bloody dynastic conflicts

Abd Allah appointed his eldest son Muhammad (father of the future Caliph Abd al-Rahman III) Crown Prince, but his other son, al-Mutarrif, did not accept the decision to his father, who, following the example of his father, decided to eliminate the fast-track to his brother, in January of the year 891, and leave the expedited path to its goal to accede to the throne. Act followed, al - Mutarrif gave death to the prestigious general of his own family, Abd al - Malik ben Abd Allah ben Umayya, considering you also an uncomfortable and dangerous obstacle. I would have probably followed the same path with his own father if this had not discovered in time its intentions. Abd Allah jailed his son and sent him to behead, in November of the year 895. These bloody events did Abd Allah appoint as a successor to his grandson Abd al - Rahman, which ascended the throne of a disparate and disorganized cordovan Emirate at the end of the year 912, after the death of his grandfather in the night of 14-15 October.


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