Biography of Muley. Sultán de Marruecos Abdelaziz (1881-1943)

Sultan of Morocco (1894-1908), of true name Abd al - Azwz ibn al - Hasan, born on February 18, 1878 in Marrakech (Morocco) and died on 9 June 1943 in Tangier (Morocco).

Favorite son of Muley Hasan sultan and a slave of Circassian origin called Lalla Regia, in 1894 was appointed successor to the Moroccan throne once his father desheredó the eldest son Muhammad Muley. After the death of his father, Abdelaziz was crowned in very difficult circumstances by grave political and social crisis spanning the realm. Proclaimed sultan in Rabat, was accepted as sovereign by notables and the tribes of Morocco, given their proven intelligence and painstaking education he had received as a Prince. Precisely because of this European education, Abdelaziz was especially inclined to introduce customs of the old continent, both in the political sphere and the social in the country.

Although at first it was under the tutelage of Sidi Amed ibn Mouza Chamberlain and the Grand Vizier al - Mokhtar Hadj, the young sultan ruled itself only and insisted to introduce political reforms, fact that he quickly cope with the political class more Orthodox and conservative in the country, which accused the sultan of being too lover of progress and the corrupted European culture. As the sultan left is influenced by certain European elements that flooded the Court, the displeasure of the nation was increasing, especially to see how the sultan abandoned the Muslim religious practices and dumping in the enjoyment of certain non-Islamic culture European sports. The straw that broke the camel of the patience of the Moroccans came was preceded by a series of political reforms that Muley Abdelaziz imposed by Decree, they clashed plane with the legendary customs and the spirit of the people. The increasingly more pronounced unpopularity of the sultan was exploited by the Moroccan political class, disgusted by the direction taken by the Government of the sultan, to form a political party in support of the defenestrated Muley Muhammad, who in 1894 had withdrawn voluntarily to a private life.

The first serious insurrection against Abdelaziz emerged in the city of Cup, led by the teacher and man of prestige Bu-Hamara, which took as a pretext the violation of Muslim laws committed by the sultan to desecrate the sacred place in which a Muslim accused of murdering the British subject Mr. Bowles had taken refuge. BU-Hamara declared holy war on the sultan and claimed the rights to the throne of Muley Muhammad, who at the time had been imprisoned by his brother. Defeated by the troops of Bu-Humara, in 1903, Abdelaziz greatly toughened repression of uprisings that have arisen against his reformist politics up to the celebration of the Algeciras Conference in 1906, where France and Spain managed to do with the right to maintain order around the country taking advantage of the extreme weakness of the country, which was going through a cruel civil war between supporters of the two brothers. With fragile props and a country involved in a civil war, the position of Abdelaziz became extremely delicate, since it was subject to constant criticism and the respect of his people was missing.

The murder, in 1907, of the French medical Manchamp by the troops of the sultan provided the perfect excuse to France intervene militarily in Morocco. In April of the same year, a French detachment occupied the city of Oujda, North-East of the country, without encountering any opposition by the troops of the sultan. This circumstance led to the gradual abandonment of the cause of the sultan by the tribes of the region of Fez, where sultan had always found its best support; These were swelling the ranks of the partisans of the new pretender to the throne, Muley al - Hafiz, his younger brother, who, on January 5, the year 1908, was proclaimed sultan in a maneuver in which France participated. Although Abdelaziz tried to hold his rights to the throne with arms, in August of the same year he was finally defeated by the forces of his brother and publicly renounced the throne.

After spending some time in Casablanca, Abdelaziz moved to Europe, where he lived in several countries always supported by the French Government. Back to Morocco, Abdelaziz obtained permission to settle permanently in Tangier, away from all political activity and dedicated to works of charity, which earned, now yes, the respect and the affection of the entire Moroccan people. After his death, his corpse was transferred to Fez and honours of a head of State surrendered to him.

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