King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Bin Abdulrahman Bin Faisal Bin Turki Bin Abdullah Bin Mohammed Bin Saud, was born on August 1, 1924 in Riyad. King ruler of Saudi Arabia and the Guardian of the two mosques, from August 1, 2005, after the death of his brother King Fahd.
Abdullah was the only son who had King Abdulaziz Al Saud (1880-1953), known as ibn Saud, with Fahda bint Asi Ash Shuraim, 8th. of his 22 wives recognized. He/She has had two two-parent sisters, the princesses Nuf and Sita, and the monarch also had 44 half-brothers males. Five older siblings, born to a different mother, preceded him respectively on the throne that his father established in 1932: Saud (1953), Faysal (1964), Khalid (1975) and since 1982, Fahd, whom Abdullah would happen upon death.
Abdullah received a traditional education in charge of religious teachers and family preceptors, demonstrating devotion since childhood by conservative national and religious values, unlike his brothers, more inclined to worldly pleasures that the pretenencia the Royal family claimed them. The young heir, preferred to spend the days alone in the desert, in the company of hawks, horses race and camels. This predisposition liked to her father, who saw in him a worthy successor, on the line that Muhammad ibn Saud had founded in the 18th century, a sect fundamentalist Sunni, followers of the warlike beliefs of Wahhabism. Wahhabis prevailed in power when they rebelled against the Ottoman Turks, who maintained a declining religiosity, and guarded the Holy Mosques of Mecca and Medina. The Wahhabi creed was imposed between pastors and the desert Caravan and came to influence the higher courts the State with stringent rules and strict abstention, implementing penalties and a body of religious supervision, to punish any deviation to the moment. The current King Abdullah still adheres to these religious precepts, and corporal punishment is still applied, mutilations and including floggings, until today.
In 1962, the King Faysal entrusted the command of the National Guard, selective armed corps with functions of security and compliance on over 30,000 persons composing the saudi family. then the King Khalid promoted Abdullah to third most important place of the Government, as a second Deputy Prime Minister of the Government. Upon the death of Khalid Abdullah went on to occupy under King Fahd the first vice presidency and first place in the line of succession of the Crown, not to control the National Guard.
From this position of proximity to the Government, Abdullah witnessed the United States approach, by common strategic interests around the fabulous incomes that oil provided them, perceived the alignment of the country towards the policies of the PLO led by Yasser Arafat, and could see how the country became mediator of conflicts in the areamaintaining the defense of the Muslim positions against the Israelis. Its position on the strategic OPEC more approached the of his brother Faysal, who in 1973 applied sanctions to countries that apoyabana to Israel. Abdullah fulfilled diplomatic functions in the conflict between Syria and Jordan, and made their first visits to the United States in 1976, repeating in 1987, making contact with Presidents Ford and Bush (p). During the events of the Gulf war of 1990, which neighbors Iraq and Kuwait engaged in an armed conflict, his country allowed that American troops are to play in the territorial boundaries adjacent to Kuwait, and lead the Alliance against Iraq, since operations Desert Shield, were launched to protect Saudi Arabia, and Desert Storm to liberate Kuwait. It is at that moment that arises a political body in Saudi Arabia, formed by 18 major senior princes, who created a Special Advisory Committee to the King. This instance decision-making is shared with the other organs of decision, in which it is sharia or religious law, the heads of the Bedouin tribes, senior businessmen and technocrats, and customary law.
The presence of Americans on saudi soil brought strong reactions and accusations of betrayal by the desecration of sacred soil of Islam, committed by the Saudis in an act of impiety. They came to accuse Saudi, especially the Shiite groups, already not to be genuine custody of Holy Mosques. The funding by Saudi Arabian Sunnis to return to deal with overarching areas in matters of religion, allowed the emergence of a powerful multinational organization, Al Qaeda, decentralized structure led by the millionaire Osama Bin Laden, with influence in several countries, enemy of Western interests, and that had proven to be very effective to contain the Russians in Afghanistan. The Saudis began a diplomatic offensive on several fronts, achieving consensus in the Muslim States, and establishing strong links with the Egypt's Mubarak, the Syria's Hafez Al-Assad (by marriage ties), and the regime of the ayatollahs in Iran. After consolidating strategic positions with these partnerships in the area of the Gulf, Arabia intervened in the peace process in the Middle East, with the intention of establishing an independent Palestinian State with its capital in Jerusalem and achieve the return to the West Bank of Palestinians emigrated.
Stage of the Gulf war meant a very high increase collector in Saudi coffers, since they offset the lack of supply by countries in conflict, to contribute almost a third of all world oil supplies, and a higher price because of the shortage. However, they had signed contracts for the purchase of such gigantic arms, which for the first time in history had to borrow money from international agencies to solve them with United States.
Due to high rates of emigration of foreign labour to their countries of origin, and the consequent decline in the standard of living of the Arabs, in 1992 King Fahd amended the age-old custom of governed by religious law, or sharia, and established the principle of the rule of law, a Constitution. It created an advisory Chamber, the Majlis as-Shura, to mediate between citizens and the Government, of minor importance that the senior Ulema, responsible for monitoring that the dictates of the Government agree with the religion. At the same time, was growing discontent of pro-democracy groups and in favour of human rights, supported by the United States, plus others who worried about the so-called Westernization of the country, and Al - Qaeda, which accused him of its alliance with the United States and began to commit acts of retaliation. In this rarefied atmosphere, it is that he/she had to assume most important functions even to Abdullah, the disease from his brother Fahd, and decided to exclude the CIA's investigations of the attacks, to solve the domestic problems with the intelligence forces. Arabia continued to support, and supporting financially the Taliban in Afghanistan, where apparently took shelter Bin Laden when he/she was expelled in 1992 and withdrawn its nationality in 1994. There a nephew of Abdullah, head of the saudi intelligence services, turned to order the expulsion of Bin Laden after the attacks on the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
On November 30, 1995, King Fahd suffered an attack of apoplexy, complicated by diabetes and arthritis in the knee. The Royal family decided to impose to Abdullah on the throne, who took over on January 1, 1996, in interim form, although the sovereign State was declining in a convalescence that degenerate with the passage of the years. Abdullah met with resistance by groups within your family, especially the sudairi clan, more prone to subordinate their relations to the United States, and a tendency to include more heirs with rights to the Crown. In fact, in December 1995, while Fahd was hospitalized and Abdullah in Oman, Prince Sultan called on Ulema to request the dismissal of Abdullah and claim for themselves the right of succession. What did Abdullah was to put the National Guard on alert and claim membership of the Bedouin tribes, situation which, ultimately, was reinforced.
March 1997 held a crucial meeting with the President of the Iranian Islamic Republic Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, and then repeated with the religious Mohammad Khatami. In 2001 he/she signed in Tehran a helpful irano-saudi security agreement, normalizing relations with this country. It also strengthened relations with countries beyond the local level, through a tour of the United States, France, United Kingdom, China and Japan, which was aimed to attract private investment and to modify his image of hesitant friend of the West, where it came to see dressed in sneakers and flowered shirts, never before seen in a high saudi leader.
The events of September 11, 2001, when the twin towers of New York were attacked and destroyed by extremists who had saudi nationality, came to alter the map of the relationships with the American nation, which had lasted more than 50 years. George Bush (h) -led Government pressured the Saudis show their Alliance through concrete actions, collaborating with the search and seizure of the instigators of the attack. The saudi Government refused to finally become a military base headquarters to organize operations against Afghanistan, and the Allied troops stationed there did more to provoke rejection, while accession to the followers of Bin Laden. On 25 September the saudi regime broke relations with the taliban Government, and October 7 bombings of British and American troops begin, that makes fall the regime headed by mullah Omar, which is given to the brain.
To mend damaged relations with the United States, Abdullah traveled to Washington to meet with George Bush (h), to propose a peace plan with Israel, in replacement of the interrupted process Oslo, very well welcomed by all those participating, with a high included fire, and the goal, ultimately, of the establishment of a Palestinian State, as well as recognition in the Arab countries towards Israel block. The Pan-Arab Summit held in March 2002 in Beirut, with the important absence of Yasser Arafat, at that time besieged by the Israelis in Ramallah, and other 10 heads of State, so the outcome of the meeting were only declarations. United States invaded, ousted and hanged Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, avoiding the Saudis an always looming threat. But the effect that a European power attacked an Arab and Muslim State not sat well in the opinion of the saudi people, nor Al - Qaeda, who felt his dissent with an attack hours before the visit of Colin Powell, killing 35 people, including 9 Americans. The decision of the sovereign Abdullah was that Americans in the country, to withdraw gradually and for further political and economic reform, such as adapt the Majlis to be a sanctioning body of laws and update the laws of suffrage, by removing the restrictions by sex. In October 2003, the Government announced that within the period of one year the country would convene the first elections to choose local councilors.
In June 2003 he/she travelled to the French town of Evian, to represent Saudi in the rounds of consultation with the G-8, and participate in meetings with Bush, Mubarak and Abbas, to support the peace plan called the road map. The year concluded with a higher revenues that are remembered, product of the high prices of oil, which allowed the country to reduce external debt, from 89% to 66% of the GDP, in one year alone. Before the wave of attacks by Al - Qaeda to offices of Government, army and security forces, in addition to American facilities, producing more than 200 dead, was the urgency of organizing operations of detection and dismantling of subversive cells. Important captures of terrorist leaders were produced, but the spiral of violence, far from stopping, was on the increase, even though the number of attacks decreased from the year 2005. For his part, Bin Laden issued a threat via television network, toward the saudi monarchy for "violating the rules of God", and urged further attacks on the oil industry. Abdullah convened a meeting in which proposed to create an international anti-terrorism centre, with 50 countries involved. In April, he/she was received by President Bush at his Texas Ranch.
Before that, between February and March, conservative candidates and clerics had been held the first promised elections, but limited only to men, which were favored.
In August 2005, Abdullah formally assumed the status of King upon the death of his half-brother Fahd, whose inauguration ceremony declared that it would apply "The Quran as the Constitution and Islam as a path". The last steps in the erradication of terrorism in the region were considered jointly the problem, along with Hamid Karzai, Afghan leader, in January 2010, to propose ways of reintegrating into society of elements that participated or cooperated in the planning of attacks, obtaining, through proven merit, cars, pensions and housing.