Turkish politician, born on October 29, 1950 in Kayseri. 11th President of the Republic of Turkey. Leader of the Islamist party of Justice and Development Party (AKP).
Coming from a conservative and traditionalist family graduated in economics from Istanbul University, in 1971, and later expanded his education with postgraduate studies at several British universities. At this time highlighted by his participation in the National Union of students Turks (MTTB). Coinciding with the overthrow of the Conservative Government of Süleyman Demirel and the establishment of a joint military, Abdullah Gül began to teach at the University of Sakarya and other centers of studies. He married Hayrünnisa Özyurt, with whom he had three children. In 1983 he completed his academic training with a doctorate in economics from the University of Istanbul.
His professional beginnings in the field of the economy were on the Bank of Islamic Development (IDB) in Jeddah, where he remained until 1991, year in which he returned to Turkey to form part of the party of welfare (RP), a formation of Islamic and right-wing character founded by Necmettin Erbakan, whose ideals served as the basis to the creator of modern Turkey, Kemal Atatürk. Gul combined their political activities with functions of an associate professor of international economic management.
In 1991 he participated for the first time in a general election as a candidate of the RP by the province of Kayseri. He got a seat in the Grand National Assembly, which was the first parliamentary representation of the party. During this period it formed part of the parliamentary planning and budget Commission. From 1992 he joined the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. In 1993 he rose within the party and went on to become Vice President for International Affairs, which enabled him to expose their political approaches to Europe and the United States.
In the 1995 elections, Necmettin Erbakan renewed his legislative mandate to obtain a simple majority with 21.3% of the votes. However, the military prevented that Government; formed redo the Executive were the two major parties lay and pro-Western: mother homeland (ANAP) of Mesut Yilmaz, Via Recta (DYP) of Tansu Çiller.
Gul continued with his political activities, but only in the legislative field within the Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Affairs, until 1996, when the ANAP and the DYP coalition was dissolved and Erbakan was called to lead the Executive, in which Abdullah Gül assumed the post of Minister of State and spokesman of the Government, responsible for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This ministerial work was carried out until 1997, when he presented his resignation dragging the party with him, by pressures due to their Islamic ideas. In 1998 the Constitutional Court outlawed the RP to argue that the party undermined the secularism of the State. Before responding to this order, Erbakan and Gul, along with other supporters, created another formation, the virtue party (FP).
In 1999, Gul, Member of the FP list, was the winner, for the second time in the elections, but with the lowest votes, 15.5%. He stood behind the party of the democratic left (DSP) of Bulent Ecevit, and the party of the nationalist movement (MHP) of Devlet Bahçeli. Both parties, along with the ANAP of Masut Yilmaz, formed a tripartite Government headed by Bulent Ecevit. This electoral setback and the misunderstandings of internal character in the FP produced an ideological separation between Erbakan and Gul, the latter with a more pronounced democratic values by concern and respect for human rights. The party was definitely broken in 2000 and in 2001 a Constitutional Court ruling outlawed it with the same arguments that had been put forward for the liquidation of the Welfare Party (RP). Gul captured for your project to Recep Tayyip Erdogan, and together they decided to found the party of Justice and development (AKP), in which Erdogan acted as President and Vice President Gul. As a result of a severe economic and social crisis of the AKP projects were very well-received. These proposals included the defence of the secular and democratic character of the State, freedom of expression, eradication of torture, and the realization of reforms aimed at achieving the entry of Turkey into the European Union.
In the elections held in November 2002 the AKP won a majority, with 34.3% of the vote. This landslide victory not of giving since the Government of Adnan Menderes. Shortly before winning the election, the Electoral Board prevented from Erdogan that it arose as a candidate and it was Gul who replaced him as head of the list, so it was appointed by President Ahmet Necdet, to preside over the Government. Months later he resigned to allow the return of Erdogan. At that time the priorities in foreign policy consisted of the resolution of the conflict with Cyprus and join the European Union, as well as the continuity of the strategic partnership with the United States. All of them led by Erdogan, while Gul was facing responsibilities at the national level.
In December 2002, both defended the interests of Turkey in the European Council of Copenhagen, however their expectations were dashed when Brussels informed them that negotiations for accession to the European Union were postponed to 2005 and subject to the fulfillment of a lot of requirements, mainly political. The deterioration of relations with the United States because of the Iraq crisis became the greatest concern and both Erdogan and Gul proposed to leave United States use Turkish facilities in Exchange for a series of demands on them, economic. This proposal took a vote and it was finally rejected, even by the AKP's own members.
In 2007 he finished President Ahmet Necdet and Erdogan ran as his successor. His candidacy caused rejection at the grassroots level, and decided to submit to Gul as presidential candidate. In the elections held in August of that same year, Abdullah Gül proclaimed himself President of the Republic of Turkey by an absolute majority.