Biography of Abdullah ibn Husayn (1882-1951)

King of Jordan born in Makkah in 1882 and died in Jerusalem in 1951. Emir of Transjordan between 1921 and 1948, the same year to was be named King of Transjordania-Jordania, position in which he remained until 1951. When the British granted the throne of Transjordan, tried to create a national consciousness in a country created artificially.

He was the second son of the Sheikh and guardian of the Holy City of Mecca, Husayn ibn Ali of HejazMuslims. His mother belonged to the famous Hashemite family of the lineage of Muhammad. He was educated in Istanbul, where he received a full training that led him to master five languages perfectly. From the revolution of the young Turks of 1908, he began to take important positions in the administration of the Ottoman Empire. He was Deputy for the city of Medina and Vice President in the Imperial Parliament, and came to play the head of the parliamentary group of the Arabs. His political action was intended to assert the weight of the Arabs in the Empire and the Government. Disillusioned by the successive promises of the Ottomans, he approached the British and joined the Union Arab nationalist movement in 1914. He led the delegation that negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with the British in Egypt in his father's name.

Struggle for the independence of the Arabs.

The Allied troops supported him in the Arab revolt of 1916, proclaimed by the Sheik of Mecca, which he directed together with his brother Faisal and was seeking the independence of the Arabs of the Ottoman Empire. The armies of the two brothers won the Turkish Governor of Arabia in Taif, and in 1918 Abdullah led the offensive that ended with the conquest of Mecca. After World War I was appointed by the British Prime Minister of the territory of Transjordan, which was under the control of the British army and relied on the protectorate of Palestine. In 1920 he was proclaimed King of Iraq by self-proclaimed Constitutional Congress of Iraq, but Abdullah refused the Crown, which was given to his brother Faisal. When the French troops drove his brother from Damascus, gathered an army in Hejaz which he held Transjordan and established his capital in Amman, from where tried to penetrate into Syria. Under British auspices, became emir of Transjordan, territory which became a British protectorate in 1923. In 1928, Abdullah got London to grant a broad autonomy in its Government action.

His reign.

He was crowned King of Transjordan on 25 May 1946. His first mission was the of creating a sense of nationality, non-existent in a territory which had been artificially created. Its great aspiration was the construction of a greater Syria that was formed by Iraq, Syria and the own Jordan. It was the only Arab leader who did not object to the creation of the State of Israel in the Assembly of the United Nations. However, it took the opportunity to occupy the West Bank of the Jordan River and the old city of Jerusalem, work carried out by its army, known as the Arab Legion during the 1948 war. The Armistice of 1949 confirmed their possession over these territories, United under its sovereignty passed to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in 1950. That circumstance bothered deeply (Egypt, Syria and Saudi Arabia), allies who hoped the creation of a Palestinian State in the West Bank region.

In 1949 it was discovered in time an attack planned by Palestinian nationalists, who had the intention of detonating a bomb in the step of your car along the road linking Amman with his Winter Palace. On July 20, 1952 he was stabbed when it made its entry into the mosque of Omar in Jerusalem by a Palestinian zealot named Mustafá Chukri, who in turn was killed by a member of the Royal escort. Immediately we had suspicions that the assassination had been promoted by his arch-rival, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, but such suspicion could not be confirmed. He was buried on July 23 in Amman. The Council of Ministers appointed regent to the second son of Abdullah, Naif, who exercised the Government until the return of the Prince Tafal, the eldest son, who was recovering from an illness at a clinic in Switzerland.

Bibliography.

ABU NOWAR, M.: The history of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan. (Oxford: Ithaca, 1989).

NEVO, S.: King Abdallah and Palestine: a territorial ambition. (New York: St. Martin Press, 1996).

ZEINE, r.: The struggle for Arab independence. (Beirut: Khyat´s, 1960).

JLGC