Biography of Abu Baker Ibn Omar (¿-1088)

Almoravid leader, he/she succeeded his brother Yahya Ibn Omar in the year 1056, at the head of the politico-military direction of the Almoravid movement, until the year 1059, date in which the religious leader of the movement, Abd Allah Ibn Yasin, clumps all the power died. In the year 1073 was displaced from the leadership by his cousin Yusuf Ibn Tashfin. He/She died in the year 1088, somewhere in the South of the country, where he/she lived in a condition of semiexilio on the express orders of his cousin.

The death of Yahya Ibn Omar, in the year 1056, Abu Bakr was appointed military leader of the Almoravids with the consent of Ibn Yasin, who forced all the tribes of the region to provide the corresponding pledge. In perfect harmony with Ibn Yasin Abu Bakr undertook the final expansion campaign that would lead to the Almoravids to dominate all Morocco in a few years. In the year 1057, he/she left at Sijilmassa in command of an army of 2,000 men, which took the city of Aghmat, which settled its headquarters and married the ambitious Zaynab, widow of the former ruler of Aghmat. From this capital, Abu Bakr sent his best generals in expeditions of conquest. His cousin and best man, Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, approached the Northern Maghreb and conquered a number of squares to the Almoravids, at the same time that consolidated the power of the movement by naming effective rulers. In this context, Ibn Tashfin overcame the berghwata dynasty settled in Ceuta, key point to dominate the Strait of Gibraltar, and shape an Almoravid State which stretched from the center of the current Algeria to the East and to the Atlantic Ocean to the West.

In the year 1061, Abu Bakr was forced out of Aghmat to quell a rebellion in the South caused by serious clashes between tribes lamtuna and mesufa, that were putting with their grudges seriously threatening the stability of the movement. Before leaving, Abu Bakr he/she divorced his wife and offered it to Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, which it put at the forefront of the movement in his absence. Worthy of his position, Yusuf Ibn Tashfin took command and is independent, founding the city of Marrakech, in the year 1062, which became the capital, giving it a mosque, government buildings and fortifications. With an army composed of Berbers, slaves black and Al-Andalus, Ibn Tashfin conquered what remained of the Maghreb, including the city of Fez, and in the year 1065 had already formed a strong Empire based in religious fervor and its tremendous ability of conquest.

When in the year 1073 Abu Bakr returned to recover the throne, Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, taking advantage of its stability and prestige among the troop and the religious leaders of the movement, forced his cousin to leave power willingly in his person. Seeing him well entrenched, Abu Bakr had no choice but to accept the harsh reality and withdraw to the South of the country, in the first foothills of the Sahara, accepting numerous gifts of his cousin and working to further prop up the prestige of the Almoravids and his cousin. In the year 1088, Abu Bakr died in Sudanese territory while trying to quell an outbreak of rebellion in the area.

Carlos Herraiz García.