Biography of King of la taifa de Córdoba Abu l-Hazm Yahwar (ca. 1000-1043)

King of the taifa of Córdoba, born around the year 1000 and died August 6, 1043 in Cordoba. He/She took control of the taifa of Córdoba after the breakdown of the Caliphate, but never took title real or Caliphate. He/She showed his conception of the Government as a service to the community and not as a royalty.

Member of the aristocracy in Cordoba at the end of the era of the Caliphate, belonged to the Banu Yahwar, of the prominent family of the Banu Abi Abda, customers of the Umayyads of Damascus, which had been established in Cordoba to take important positions in the Umayyad Court of Córdoba since the mid-8th century. He/She was son of Muhammad, who had been Secretary of Almanzor. Thanks to its familiar position, Yahwar worked as a Secretary at the Court of Abd Rahman Sanchuelo and such as vizier of Sulayman al - Musta'in, for which Ali Ibn Hammud ended up imprisoning him. For this reason Yahwar led an uprising in Cordoba against the Hammudids, who managed to eject and replaced by Umayyad Caliphs, until the situation became untenable in 1031. Until that date, Cordoba had been illusory central power, but after he/she became a taifa, as it had been happening in previous years with the different territories that had depended on the Caliphate.

When notables de Córdoba decided to abolish the Caliphate and depose the Umayyad Hisham III Tuesday, November 12, 1031, these assumed power in municipal corporation (yama' to) that the same happened in Toledo and Seville. The Government was entrusted to Yahwar, that from the beginning tried to avoid reminiscent of the previous period and declined to take title or Caliph attributes, thus Cordoba became an apparent "bourgeois Republic". Put as a condition to govern the system out a triumvirate, so he/she chose from among relatives or friends to Muhammad Ibn Abbas and Abd al - Aziz Ibn Hasan. Although Yahwar did not take titles, Ibn al - Jatib called sayj Yama ' ('Sheikh of the Community'). In its policy, much-praised by Muslim sources, took into account the peculiarities of the taifa of Córdoba: he/she regularized the tax, grew the economy and restored civic order to license the Berber troops, except a small and manageable group of Yafranies, and replaced them by a citizen militia.

Yahwar said that it would be depositary of Government until it appears a legitimate representative. In 1035, the Qadi of Seville, Abul Qasim Muhammad I, proclaimed the reappearance of the Caliph Hisham II and in November of that year Yahwar sent him a letter of appreciation and congratulation written by the great Secretary Ahmed Ibn Burd. Probably the ruler of Córdoba knew that actually Hisham II died in 1023, murdered during the second inning in Cordoba of al - Musta'in, but not interested to oppose the fiction hatched by Muhammad I, by reason of the existence of a suitor Hammudid established in Carmona. However, when Muhammad proposed the re-establishment of the Caliph in his palace of Córdoba, Yahwar sent an Embassy to Seville to they cerciorasen the identity of the purported Umayyad. After the return of the Embassy Yahwar withdrew their recognition to Hisham and abolished its name in the official prayers (1039), which caused the attack of Cordoba by Ismail, son of the cadi Seville. The generic Abd Allah in the place where the name of the Caliph should show was used on coins of the subsequent period.

Yahwar make a huge diplomatic effort to exercise as a mediator in the conflicts of the different taifa: interceded for the Almeria prisoners of Badis Ibn Habbus of Granada, when in 1038 last won a resounding victory over Zuhayr of Almería, which purported to invade the territories of Badis; He/She also mediated in the struggles between the taifas of Badajoz and Sevilla and got their kings to sign peace and unite against an imminent attack Christian; In addition to these specific interventions, Yahwar offered refuge to different factions and different taifa noble clans, displaced by the annexationist thrust of the taifa of Seville.

According to the characteristics of its Government "Republican" no designated successor, but the events of Córdoba made power shifting on his son, Abu l-Walid, who took the title of al - Rasid. After his death he/she was buried in his own residence.

Muslim Chronicles give account of the personality and actions of Yahwar, in addition to highlighting his accused religiosity, righteousness, honesty and its serene and peaceful character. Al - Marrakusi, chronicler of the Almoravid period indicates that Yahwar was able to avoid the riots that had characterized the previous time thanks to his political skill. The same chronicler explains as Yahwar assigned servers in los Alcázares and porters but did not live in them, but he/she continued to live in his house. Also mentioned in the Chronicle of Ibn Khaldun the customs of Yahwar with his subjects, who visited when they fall ill and whose funeral attended. You can also see in the Chronicles aspects of religiosity of Yahwar: he/she acted as muezzin in the mosque which Córdoba had in the eastern suburbs and superrogatorias nights of ramadan prayers prayed publicly.

Bibliography

JOVER ZAMORA, j. m. (coord.). "The Taifa kingdoms. Al - Andalus in the 11th century,"in history of Spain Menéndez Pidal, vol. VIII-I. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1994.

LÓPEZ DE COCA CASTAÑER, J. E. "The Taifa kingdoms", in history of Andalusia, vol. II. Madrid-Barcelona, 1980.