Biography of Abú-l-Ula al-Watiq (ca. 1230-1269)

Last Almohad Caliph of Morocco and Al - Andalus born in Baeza about 1230 and died in Wadí Agfú (Morocco) 1 September 1269. His full name was Abu Dabbus Idris ibn Abi Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Umar ibn Abd to the Mumin. His prenombre was Abu-l-Ula and is called Abú Dabbús ('the de la maza') because it used the Mace of combat as a weapon.

It was the minor nine al - Bayasi brothers, a rival of the Caliph al-Adil, who in 1224 was proclaimed Lord of Baeza. His mother was a Christian slave and her inherited Caucasian features. During his youth he fought in Al - Andalus in the civil wars prior to the expulsion of the Almohads in the Peninsula. He then went to Morocco and entered the service of the Caliph al-Murtad, distinguishing itself in the defense of the city against the marinids of 1262 and 1263. Between 1263 and 1264 Abu-l-Ula participated in a series of intrigues and was forced to flee the capital, accused of maintaining secret correspondence with the emir benimerin Abú Yusuf Yaqub. At the end of 1264 Abú Dabbús offered his services to Abú Yusuf Yaqub to fight the Almohads and this provided credentials between the Lords of the Atlas, among which Abú Dabbús was looking for followers throughout the winter of 1065. Besides important props in the capital won the Alliance of Arab Sufyan, the Banu Yabir and a large number of Christian mercenaries. In October 1266, they marched towards the capital and took it easily, since the garrison of Morocco was raising taxes Haha and Ragraga. Al - Murtad fled the city in October and was captured and beheaded in November.

Abú Dabbús was proclaimed in Morocco from October 23, 1266 and took the titles of al - Watiq (' the one who trusts in God') and Al - Mutamid Alayhí (' the one who trusts in him'). It was named vizier Abu Zayd ' Abd al - Rahman and kept to the Secretaries of the previous Caliphs. From the beginning he tried to gain popularity and so suppressed new taxes, maintaining in force only old burdens; It eliminated the fees on goods and tried to keep the welded through records and fines to officials of the Treasury.

But the Caliph failed the previous Pact with the marinids, causing attacks to Morocco in early 1267. Also lost Abú Dabbús friendship with Sheikh Haskura, Masud ibn Yaldasan, who had been one of its main supporters. In may 1267 the Caliph began an expedition against Haskura, though the negotiations leading up to the attack managed to avoid the confrontation. While the Caliph was outside the capital, Abd al - Aziz, a son of the Caliph Abu-l-Hassan Ali I, began a conspiracy to seize power and it was seconded by major nobles of the city, but Abú Dabbús knew her, and secretly ordered the murder of Abd al - Aziz.

In spring of 1267 started Abú Dabbús campaign to defeat Ibn Yiddar, which had been independent in the Valley of the their reigning al - Murtad. For a few weeks the Caliph was receiving the membership of important Lords Almohad and at the beginning of July they took the city of Tizgat; the 21st of the same month began the siege of the fortress of Tinwanwin and at the end of August was their capitulation; Abú Dabbús came victorious in Morocco October 9, 1267. At that time began a benimerin attack the region of Dukkala. The Caliphate troops managed to expel the invaders from Dukkala, but were defeated by Abú Yusuf Yaqub in February of the following year. In April the marinids razziaron the region close to the capital and returned to Fez in winter, but the following spring resumed attacks. The Almohad sheikhs convinced the Caliph to it out to repel aggressors, claiming that the bulk of the troops marinids were protecting Cup. Abú Dabbús pursued the enemy to Wadí Agfú detachment, where benimerin army fell upon the Almohad troops defeating them. The Caliph tried to escape, but was killed in battle, marking the end of the Almohad dynasty. His head was sent to FES and Morocco joined benimerin domain.

Although his son Abd al - Wahid managed to flee and was proclaimed Caliph in Tinmel, taking the title of al - Mutasim billah, he set aside five days after his proclamation and fled to al - Andalus.


HUICI MIRANDA, A. political history of the Almohad Empire. Tetuan, 1957.

JOVER ZAMORA, J.M. (dir). "The territorial retreat of Al - Andalus", in history of Spain Menéndez Pidal, vol. VIII-II. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1994.