Biography of King of la taifa de Valencia Abul Hassan Abdel Aziz (1007-1061)

King of the taifa of Valencia and founder of the amiri dynasty, born to 1007 and died in January of 1061. During his reign, Valencia met a relative peace and was not involved in the bloody wars caused by the Berbers that struck Al - Andalus, or in clashes with Christians. Their main enemy was Mujaahid of Denia, acting against it only when it fell into his power the kingdoms of Almeria and Murcia.

Son of the Caliph of Córdoba Abd al - Rahman Sanchuelo and grandson of Almanzor, Abdel Aziz was chosen by the Freedmen of Almanzor House to gather around him and form a dynasty which govern the Kingdom of Valencia. When he was still a child he received from his father the title of al - Muzaffar and head of the hiyaba. Away from the riots in which was deposed and killed his father, was taken to Zaragoza and placed under the protection of Al-Mundhir II to Al - Mansur Ibn Yahya. With fifteen years he was transferred to Játiva where Slavs amiries recognized him as haajib between March and April 1021 and took the honorific title of al - Mansur, who was that used on their currencies, although he subsequently received new titles. However soon dissensions arose with amiri fata Jayran of Almeria, which proclaimed to Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik, another grandson of Almanzor and cousin of Abdel Aziz, Lord of Orihuela, Murcia and Lorca, to prevent Abdel Aziz will seize them and engrandeciese his Kingdom dangerously in those years. The authority of Abdel Aziz was not recognized by all the Slavs of Játiva and this was expelled from the city, from where they marched to Valencia. After being greeted with enthusiasm by the free slaves gathered, was proclaimed emir of this city in 1022. For a time Abdel Aziz acknowledged the superiority of the Caliph hammudid to Al - Qasim Ibn Hammud, who confirmed his sovereignty over Valencia and granted him the titles of Du l-sabyqatayn ('of the two preeminencias'), al - Mutaman ('the trustworthy').

The first ten years of his reign, Abdel Aziz enjoyed peace, because its main rival, Mujaahid of Denia was in the famous expedition to Sardinia and could devote himself to fortify the city and enjoy the pleasures of the Court at the almunia de Villanueva (gardens of the Royal) Park built for your pleasure and for lavish parties that were remembered by poets and writers. He met in his court to four famous Secretaries who was called the "four characters": Ibn Talut, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Abd al - Aziz, who was called Ibn Raubas, and Ibn al - Takuruni. The latest, draft the official charts of the emir, amounted to the visirato and acquired enormous wealth.

Abdel Aziz of Valencia was one of the first regulos from Al - Andalus to recognize False Hisham II (1035), imposed by al - Mutamin of Seville. Three years later, on the death of Zuhayr, the successor of Jayran, in the war against Badis Ibn Habbus of Granada, Abdel Aziz asserted their rights of patronage and was recognized Lord of Almeria and Murcia (19-XII-1038). Followed recognizing false Hisham II kept his name in the prayers, as soon as it was possible, it seized the treasure that Jayran and Zuhayr had accumulated and moved to Valencia.

To avoid any possible opposition within Almería, Abdel Aziz sent his brother-in-law, the vizier Ma'n Ibn Sumadih, Granada to convince Badis that give death to all the viziers and cadis of Zuhayr, especially to his Secretary, Ahmed Ibn Abbas, who had been the main architect of the campaign against Granada. However the own Abdel Aziz decided to continue with the conquest of Granada which had begun Zuhayr, so asked for help to Mujaahid of Denia. The Regulus deniense, not very convinced, gave support to Abdel Aziz, but at that then took place between both a verbal confrontation in Lorca where serious insults were exchanged and that was the origin of his later hostility; the immediate result of this dispute was the breaking of the Alliance for the conquest of Granada by Mujaahid, leaving Abdel Aziz in a compromised situation. In 1039 Abdel Aziz appointed his son Abd Allah, who gave the title of al - Nasir as Governor of Almeria. This soon died without leaving a trace of his performance, after which he was replaced by Ma'n Ibn Sumadith. In 1042 Ma 'n independence from Valencia, and created the Banu Sumadih dynasty, after Abdel Aziz wrote to the inhabitants of Almeria so they escogiesen among them to the character that govern them and they choose to Ma' n. During the short period that Abdel Aziz dominated Almeria coined currency in Murcia and Almeria.

Towards 1041 Abdel Aziz met the hostility of Denia Mujaahid, although this had been partisan yours when Almeria Jayran proclaimed Muhammad Ibn Abd al - Malik in Játiva. Mujaahid invaded the Kingdom of Valencia, Murcia and Orihuela, Elche, where stood against Abdel Aziz the fatás of Lorca, Játiva and Jodar, instigated by Mujaahid areas. During all the race Mujaahid and Abdel Aziz exchanged letters with insults and satirical literature, which suggests that the war was only due to both personal confrontation emerged following the incident of Lorca. The King of Valencia could easily retrieve Jativa thanks to the help of the Spaniards, but war between Valencia and Denia continued until 1041 and only stopped thanks to the mediation of Sulayman al-Mustasin of Zaragoza, who, in the name of Islam, urged both kings to stop their struggle. The peace was signed along with a triple matrimonial Alliance between the kingdoms of Valencia, Zaragoza and Denia: the firstborn son of Abdel Aziz, Ali, married a daughter of the King of Zaragoza and Valencia King married a daughter of Mujaahid. After the war the territory of the taifa of Valencia was trimmed for the benefit of the deniense and Almeria: went to Mujaahid control the lands north of the Segura to Orihuela, Jódar, Baeza and probably the territory currently occupied by the province of Albacete. Lorca became the power of Almeria and, although Abdel Aziz encouraged an insurrection of his Governor Ibn Sabib, against the new rulers, the city ended definitively unlinking is of the Kingdom of Valencia. This only the nominal domain of Murcia was left.

After 1041 ceased hostilities between Abdel Aziz and Mujaahid, while the King of Valencia had to face a new uprising of the slaves amiries jativa in 1043. Although at a first skirmish Abdel Aziz was wounded, he managed to escape and gather the fugitives, who entered the city to defeat the rebels and kill a large number of them. After this, Abdel Aziz reigned in peace until his death.

Abdel Aziz must have had three successive heirs according to their currencies: between 1043 and 1051 to-Mutasin; then and until 1057 Abd Allah, with the title of al - Nasir; Finally, his son Abd al-Malik, coins appearing under the title of al - Muzaffar, and that, indeed, was proclaimed by the amiries of Valencia the day of the death of Abdel Aziz.

Bibliography

DOZY, R. Histoire des Muslim d'Espagne juste la conquête de l' Cordoba pas les Almoravides. Paris, 1932.

HUICI MIRANDA, A. Muslim history of Valencia and its Region. New features and fixes. Valencia, 1970.

JOVER ZAMORA, J. M. (dir). "The Taifa kingdoms. Al - Andalus in the 11th century,"in history of Spain Menéndez Pidal, vol. VIII-I. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1994.