Czech conductor, later naturalized American, born in Neuhaus (Czech Republic) on March 1, 1907 and died in Butler (New Jersey, United States) on September 21, 1977. He carried out his musical studies at the Academy of Vienna, where he was a pupil of Ferdinand Foll, Guido Adler and Robert Lach. Between 1927 and 1929, he made his first job as Assistant of Erich Kleiber at the Berlin Staatsoper, after this learning, is in charge, between 1929 and 1932, the Director of the German Opera in Prague. In 1932, he returned, this time as Chief conductor at the Staatsoper Berlin, although in the following year to flee the Soviet Union thanks to the rise of the nazis to power. In the USSR it shall be until 1937 with the post of director of the Opera in Kiev (1933-35) and the Orchestre Philharmonique de Leningrad (1935-37). In 1938, the Soviet and nazi regimes approach led him to emigrate again, this time to the United States, where it remains, after obtaining citizenship, until the end of his days. In New York, city in which is installed in the first place, was unveiled as a pianist and director of choirs in the execution of a series of seasons, held between 1938 and 1943, dedicated to the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. It was the Adler, as so many musicians and intellectuals fled the dangers of Nazism (just to quote figures from the caliber of Thomas Mann or Arnold Schönberg) presence essential diversification and deepening of the American musical world in general and New York in particular. In 1943, the Metropolitan Opera House hired him as director of the choir and, from 1951 until his retirement in 1973, was resident conductor of the Orchestra of the same theater.