Philosopher and Austrian sociologist born in Vienna in 1873 and died in his hometown in 1937. He/She studied law and sociology in Vienna, and was Professor of sociology at the University of his native city since 1920. He/She embraced the Socialist movement in his youth and was a member of social-democratic in the Austrian Parliament for over twenty years.
His philosophy is attached to the Marxist thesis and was, together with Otto Bauer and Rudolf Hilferding, one of the main representatives of the Austrian Marxism or "austromarxism", opposed to the Bolshevik dogmatism and Leninist politics, which predicted that it would be the instrument of the new oppression.
He applied the Kantian criticism to sociology, discipline that he/she intended to do a science, and tried to establish what are the causal laws that govern the economic development and the history material. In this sense, is asked by the conditions of the possibility of knowledge a priori of social phenomena. According to Adler, is social awareness the Foundation of knowledge a priori of such phenomena, but the social conscience understood as historical socialization, rather than common individual property or intersubjective reality. Considered society and social phenomena not only as products of social interaction, but also concepts a priori of the human mind in general. The conclusion is, according to Adler, a sort of social transcendentalism inspired by the critical Kantian, seeking also to give an epistemological Foundation theories of Marx and Engels.
Using this theory as a basis, he/she formulated a "proletarian" dynamic sociology, opposite to the "bourgeois" static sociology; and he/she clarified the materialist conception of history from an epistemological point of view. It tried to strengthen Marxism dialectical elements based on the principles of the materialist conception of history, and thus resulted in a combination of philosophical idealism and socio-economic realism that showed his continuing claim Hegelian genealogy of thought of Marx.
In the period that followed the first world war was in Austria called colectivizante thought leader. Silenced by the more immobile sectors of the party, his work was reflected his revisionist view of Marxism and its concern to implement to doctrines Marxist laws of sociology.
His main works include: Kausalitat und Teleologie im Streite um die Wissenschaft (causality and teleology in the fight around science, 1904), Marx as a thinker (Marx als Denker, 1908), Marxistische Probleme (problem Marxists, 1913), Der sozialgeschichtliche Sinn der Lehre von Karl Marx (the social meaning of the doctrine of Karl Marx, 1914), indicator (1914), democracy and Soviet system (1914)Der Marxismus als proletarische Lebenslehre (Marxism as proletarian doctrine of life, 1922), Das Soziologische in Kants Erekenntniskritik (sociological criticism of knowledge of Kant, 1925), Lehrbuch der materialistischen Geschichtsauffassung (Manual of the materialist conception of history, 1930) and Das Rätsel der Gesellschaft (the enigma of society, 1936).