Biography of emperador del Sacro Imperio Adolfo I de Nassau (1255-1298)

Emperor of the Holy Empire (1292-1298), born in 1255 and died at the battle of Gollsheim the 3 July 1298. Always with money problems, he/she distanced himself from the tutelage of the ecclesiastical electors and sought the protection of the King of England, as that ultimately led to his deposition.

Belonging to one of the oldest houses in Germany, Adolph was the son of count Walram II of Nassau and Countess Adelaide of Katzenellenbogen and in his youth distinguished by its value at the battle of Worigen, which fought alongside the Archbishop of Cologne. The death of Emperor Rudolph I of Habsburg (1291) was appointed to succeed him, although his candidacy was not taken into account until you were rejected those with more weight of Alberto de Habsburgo, son of the deceased Emperor and Wenceslao IV of Bohemia. After nine months of intrigue, and thanks to the support of electors churchmen, especially Archbishop Gerardo de maize, a close relative of Rodolfo, was elected Emperor (May 1, 1292) and June 24 was crowned in Aachen.

Adolfo's financial problems began even before his coronation, when he/she was forced to surrender the castle of Cobern as payment to 2,000 frames that had been developed for election expenses. Shortly after had to deliver a part of the Royal domains to Wenceslao IV, as a sign of the agreement of marriage between Guta, daughter of the Emperor and Rupert, son of Wenceslas square. This link was responding to the need to make alliances against the Habsburgs. Being the poorest monarch who occupied the imperial throne, Adolfo de Nassau had to deal with many enemies, among them Alberto of Austria, but also with Conrado de Lichtenberg, Bishop of Strasbourg, Federico de Lichtenberg, Anselmo of Ribeaupierre, or Walter Roesselmann, defeating the Emperor in all occasions.

The lack of money led him in 1294 to sign a treaty with Eduardo I of England, to whom pledged to send troops to fight against Felipe IV of France, in Exchange for a sum of 100,000 pounds sterling (about 30,000 frames). Immediately, Alberto de Habsburgo rebelled against the Alliance with England and declared supporter of Felipe the beautiful one; many German princes joined the House of Austria and then began a conspiracy to dethrone Adolfo. The Pope Boniface VIII, who still not be had alienated with the King of France, forbade the emperor who empuñase weapons against France and Adolfo, who had already received the agreed amount, was not remiss to obey papal orders and an army of 2,000 horsemen, but without returning the sum received a degree. He/She used the money to acquire land to increase the splendor of his lineage, buying the succession in Thuringia to the Alberto the degenerateDuke, whose strongholds occupied in two campaigns in 1294 and 1296. Archbishop Gerardo de Maguncia claimed Adolfo a sum previously paid and refused to return it. Gerardo, discontent also by not having reached the desired preponderance, brought together a diet at Mainz (23 June 1298) in which deposed Adolfo, after having made serious accusations against him: server of the King of England, destroyer of churches, disability, cruelty and corruption of virgins, among others; offered the Crown to Alberto de Habsburgo. Although voters had requested that Bonifacio VIII confirmed this deposition, the Pope did not give its express consent, giving the case of the first deposition of an emperor without papal acquiescence. Voters who voted for the deposition were Mainz, Saxony and Brandenburg, but Adolfo still could count on the support of the count Palatine and the Archbishop of Trier, and decided to fight for his throne. Ten days after the diet of Mainz, Adolfo was found with his enemies in Gollsheim, near Worms, where was killed, according to Chronicles, from the hands of his own enemy, Alberto of Austria, who succeeded him as Alberto I. Adolfo I was buried at Speyer.

Bibliography

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JMMT