German physicist, was born in Rostock on December 13, 1724 and died at Dorpat on August 10, 1802.
Some publications that made gave to advantageously, and became a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. In 1755 was established as director of the Observatory of this institution, and two years later as a Professor of physics at Petersburgo, where he/she had a very distinguished until his death race.
He performed research on thermoelectric properties of tourmaline, and built which is considered the first air, a bottle of Leyden capacitor (see bottle) in which removed the glass. The fact that the condenser is not downloaded from immediately led him to reject the hypothesis of Franklin that electrical phenomena were transmitted by an imponderable fluid. His remarks reflected them in theoriae Musicae theoriae electricitatis et magnetismi (1759), the best work on the electrical phenomena of the era. His work is entitled reflections on the distribution of heat in the Earth's surface. It is considered also the inventor of the electrophone.