Filipino politician born near Cavite (Luzon) on March 23, 1869 and died in Manila on February 6, 1964; independence leader, fought against Spain and United States, and was the first President of his country.
Son of a Chinese father and Tagalog mother, studied at the University of Santo Tomas of Manila; He/She was a school teacher and was later appointed mayor of Cavite Viejo (Kawit). At the outbreak of the uprising in August 1896, he/she contributed to the formation of a secret society called the Katipunan and formed by some 40,000 men, who fought fiercely against Spanish rule. The following year he/she signed with Spain Byak-Na-Bato peace which agreed to go into exile in Exchange for the promise of liberal reforms and investments in the archipelago.
He lived in Hong Kong until the United States claimed it so that it resume the war, in Exchange for recognition of independence; on May 19, 1898 landed with a group of rebels in Cavite, under the protection of the fleet of Admiral Dewey; After the death of Andrés Bonifacio, another Philippine leader stressed, at the hands of the own tagalogs, emerged as the main leader of the cause. It played an important role in the defeat of Spain, however Queen Regent María Cristina awarded the distinction of the Red Cross for its humanitarian treatment of Spanish prisoners.
On June 12, 1898 was proclaimed the independence of the (provisional) Republic of the Philippines and Aguinaldo was elected President but, after the Treaty of Paris, its territory was placed under command of the United States, in fact, already occupied militarily the country. In January 1899, he/she met a new Assembly of Patriots, chaired by himself, which, under the pledges received during the war against Spain, the Malolos Constitution adopted, and then (4 February, 1899), took up arms against U.S. troops despite its notorious inferiority. Aguinaldo led and encouraged non-stop war against the occupiers, until in March 1901 he/she was captured at his Palanan barracks by the forces of general Frederick Funston; forced to sign a declaration of loyalty to the United States, withdrew from public life with a pension; This was a severe setback for the Patriots, who were finally defeated in 1906 after new uprisings. American dominance lasted several decades.
In 1934 was granted autonomy, or Commonwealth of the Philippines. Aguinaldo was presented to the first presidential election in 1935, which lost to Manuel l. Quezon. During World War II (1941-1945) Japanese invaders returned to public life to be used as a symbol of the anti-American fight, time in which the episode in its appeal to the forces of general accountability was famous isolated McArthur at Corregidor (May 1942).
After the end of the war he/she was accused of Collaborationism and imprisoned in Bilibid prison, where they remained for several months. Once released, the Philippine Government rehabilitated him in recognition of his struggle for the freedom of the country. In 1950 he/she was appointed member of the Council of State by President Elpidio Quirino. In his later years, he/she claimed the rights of war veterans and tried to improve relations with the United States.