Biography of Djelal-Eddin-Mohamed Akbar (1542-1605)

Akbar

Third emperor of the dynasty Mogolde India. He/She reigned between A.d. 1556, date in which his father, Humayun, was murdered and the year of his death, 1605, in which his son Jahangir succeeded him on the throne of Delhi. Akbar (literally, "great") was one of the most important monarchs in the history of India, the architect of all the administrative system of the Mughal Empire and the precursor of important works of art; It is known, moreover, by its humanistic spirit and its tolerant character. Born in Amarkot (Sind) in 1543 and only thirteen years old he/she was crowned Emperor of India; during his reign, it was proposed to extend the power of their empire, achieving its ambitions with the expansion of its borders to dominate all the Valley of the Ganges to Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat, Sindh and Balochistan. Akbar looked for alliances with other rajput princes, who used as General of his armies, filling them of power and wealth, a system that became the cornerstone of its policy and allowed him to make these princes his imperial ambitions, avoiding clashes with them.

One of the greatest achievements of Akbar was the Organization of an effective administration that would be the basis of success for their successors. The conquered territories were divided into 15 provinces: Kabul, Punjab and Kashmir, Sind, Delhi, Agra, Avadhi, Allahabad, Ajmer, Gujarat, Mallow, Bihar, Bengal and Orissa, Kandesh, Berar and Ahmadnâgar in which established an effective system of tax collection, which was a comprehensive cadastre; It established a uniform annual tax for farmers and abolished the jizira, a special tax that existed on non-Muslims. Akbar entrusted the administration of the provinces to the Nawab Nazim and his control military to the mansabdar.

In terms of its religious policy, it must be said that the Emperor always felt a great admiration of Persia Sufi writers, as well as the hindu Mystic; Akbar always surrounded himself with scholars of these two religions, as well as parsis, jainas, and Christians, who counseled him and debated about the true nature of God; in relation to the special concern of the Emperor created a new religion called Din-i Ilahi (religion of the light), which attempted to unify the various religions and put an end to the religious disputes that threatened his Kingdom. In line with the comprehensive spirit that characterized his religious ideas, Akbar adopted many Hindu customs, including the show before his subjects as a true chacravartin (the legendary ruler of the four cardinal points with whom he/she identified the Buddhist and Hindu Kings of India) and created a new art which is pooled with Persian influences local traditions. Akbar counted in his palace with an important center of translation and illumination of texts which come from Hindu and Islamic manuscripts, and, among them, the narration of the events of the life of the Emperor: the Akbar Nama, written by his Minister and friend Abdul Fadl, and beautifully illustrated. Starting from the his reign the importance of the arts and letters was decisive in the Court, having very special popularity schools of Indian miniature, where Hindu artists worked together with famous Persian miniaturists.

Architectural works by Akbar are characterized by a deep syncretism that again shows the tolerant nature of the emperor. His most important works include the impressive complex of Fatehpur Sikri, a city founded in 1576 40 kilometres from Agra, the oldest part of the Red Fort of Agra and the mausoleum of Humayun in Delhi.

The mausoleum of Akbar at Sikandra, was built by his son and successor, Jahangir, following the constructive and religious ideas of his father.

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