Biography of Faraón de Egipto Akhenatón o Akenatón o Amenofis IV (1364-1347 a.C.)

(Imn-htpw; Akh-n-Itn) tenth King of the 18th Egyptian dynasty, son and successor of Amenhotep III and the great Royal wife Tiyi.

Many aspects of the life of Akhenaton, also known as Amenhotep IV, we are unknown. It is assumed that his father, sick and old man, would appoint you easy at a ceremony held in Memphis. He/She was crowned King at Karnak to the death of one, and took as name of Ascension to the throne of Nefer-kheperure Uaenre. It is not known with accuracy influences could receive from his tutor Amenhotep, son of Hapu, his parents and his wife and cousin Nefertiti, daughter of Ayand Tiyi II, to impose the new cult of Aton. In any case, the clergy of AMN was losing prerogatives and goods, and even suffered persecution. Akhenaton, by the fifth year of his reign, changed his name from Amenhotep by the Akhenaten (or Akhnaton), which means "Useful for disk", calling his wife Nefer-neferu-Aton. He/She then retired to a new city that ordered to lift and that delimited by fourteen contrails border; This was located halfway between Memphis and Thebes, and was called Akhetatón, "Skyline Drive" (today-Tell el-Amarna), and became capital of the new theocratic State, centered on the figure of Aton (the solar disk).

Dedicated to his religion, Akhenaton, which on the other hand could control more power, Buchanan of the tasks of Government, thus initiating the decadence of the country and favouring the internal revolts and the revolt of peripheral areas (case of the country of Ikayta, for example). The correspondence found in Akhetatón, however, allows to know the relations of Egypt with foreign countries and suggests that internationally the country of the Nile was continuing with its prestige. However, the Hittites were able to Mitanni to break its alliance with Egypt, and not a few altercations appeared in Syria and Phoenicia (capture of Byblos by the King of Damascus, capture of Jerusalem) in which Akhenaten did not lower interest. Towards the end of his reign (the events are unknown by the destruction of documents during the ramessid) apparently there were dissensions with Nefertiti, who fell from grace and was replaced by the second wife of Akhenaten's name Kiya, who some Egyptologists identify with Tadu-Khepa, a mitannia married to Amenhotep III. A few Egyptologists believe that Nefertiti was awarded the Royal titulatura and that he/she could govern with the crowning of Ankh (et) kheperure name. Be that as it may, the King was forced to associate to the throne to Smenkhkare, who ignored his origins, and to which wife gave her firstborn daughter Meritaton.

Ignored how Akhenaten died and how he/she disappeared Smenkhkare, still young and who preceded in death his father-in-law. The King succeeded him directly the indicated Queen Ankh (et) kheperure, who would rule about three years (Pauah graffiti, in the tomb of Pairy) and this Tutankhatn, married to Ankhesenpaatn, another of the daughters of Akhenaten (who would be renamed Tutankhamon and Ankhesenamn). Some Egyptologists believe that Smenkhkare and Tutankhamun were siblings of Akhenaton and, therefore, sons of Amenhotep III; others believe that they may have been children of the own Akhenaton.

Pharaoh Akhenaton has gone down in history as the "heretic pharaoh" and as one of the first religious reformers, with clear monotheistic tendencies around Aton (religion Amarna), who built numerous temples throughout the country; These include Memphis, Heliopolis, elephantine and Nubia. Apart from these, other eight temples of its first stage of reign which were built quickly, using the technique of blocks in series (the talata), which have reached over 50,000 are known. The King had literary interests, and was probably the author of a beautiful hymn to Aton did record in all the temples of Tell el-Amarna and which is even set in the tomb of the aforementioned Ay, father of Nefertiti and later King. Also, in his reign the Egyptian art adopted new aesthetic canons (bust of Nefertiti from the Berlin Museum, Colossus osirico of Karnak, couple of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, torso of Princess), who was not alien Pharaoh, which had remarkable skills if we are to believe his architect plastic Bek. The plastic and pictorial figurations of Akhenaton, representing it under obvious androgynous aspects, has been evaluated in very different way. For some, it would obey the new artistic conception of the King; for others, would be unequivocal proof of the so-called "Fröhlich syndrome', disease that might have suffered in his last years of life. Akhenaton was most likely buried in El-Amarna, but the Mummy has not been found.