Biography of Al-Mundir o al-Mundhir. Emir de al-Andalus (¿-888)

Emir of al - Andalus born date unknown and died in 888. Belonging to the Umayyad dynasty, came to power after the death of his father, Muhammad I. He/She ruled from the 886 until the date of his death. His brief reign, barely lasted two years, was developed in a period of great instability, since after its coming to power an uprising occurred in al - Andalus popular directed by Ibn Hafsun Ibn Hafsun.

From an early age it was linked to power as legitimate heir of Muhammad I, was frequent their participation in military actions directed by his father and in the aceifas or annual military campaigns carried out against the Christian kingdoms.

In the year 856 al - Mundhir besieged Toledo fulfilling the orders of his father. After the victory of the Muslims in the battle of Guadalete, this city, far from appeasing is showed his deep hatred for the cordovan regime led by Muhammad I. The action carried out by al - Mundhir barely had any impact, it was his father in the year 858, which managed the city surrender.

Merida, capital of the lower mark, like Toledo, also tried to become independent without success in the control of Muhammad I. The main promoter of the meridense uprising was Abd al - Rahman ibn Marwan ibn Yunus, it became independent in the year 868. The reaction of Muhammad did not wait, quickly besieged Merida, and once he/she took control of the city tried to keep monitored the leaders of the revolt. Ibn Marwan resided in Córdoba until the 875 it escaped and took refuge in the castle of Alonge, besieged for three months, was forced to surrender the fortress because of hunger. Following the signing of peace, Muhammad authorized to reside in Badajoz, but not happy with their situation ibn Marwan returned to revolt months later. In 877, al - Mundhir, following the instructions of his father, moved with an army towards Mérida and Badajoz; at this point, Ibn Marwan for fear of being defeated fled the area and sought the protection of Alfonso III, King of Asturias (866-910). In 884, eight years after his departure to Christian lands, ibn Marwan returned to Badajoz being then ejected by al - Mundhir, was forced to take refuge in Esparragosa square, after the siege of this stronghold, without getting results, Muhammad began the negotiations, so that peace would be durable decided to cede the Government of Badajoz to ibn Marwan. After the arrival of al - Mundhir to power in the 886, ibn Marwan became a secondary problem and tried at all times maintain a cordial relationship with the Lord of Badajoz.

During the rule of his father, al - Mundhir highlighted by their actions against the Christian kingdoms, clear example was the aceifa of the year 865. Responsible for the preparations for the campaign, al - Mundhir directed the Umayyad troops toward the right bank of the River Ebro; He/She first sought to assure control next to the passage of Prádanos castles, to then to sow terror in the region. When he/she set out on the way back to al - Andalus, al - Mundhir could verify that the step to be used (Foz de Malacuera) for his return, had been discarded by the count of Castile, Rodrigo, then led his men open, since it was preferable to confront the asturians in this area, since these were more accustomed to the Muslims to take action in mountain areas. The battle that took place days later, it was disastrous for the supporters of the King of Asturias, Ordoño I (850-866), after this great victory to Al - Mundhir was able to return to Cordoba with total peace of mind.

In the 882 al - Mundhir had another outstanding foreign intervention. Muhammad I entrusted with the important task to his son's attack on the Banu Qasi and the Asturian King Alfonso III. This, accompanied by the general favourite of his father, Hasim ibn Abd al - Aziz, which years later would be condemned to death for al - Mundhir; He/She attacked in vain Zaragoza, although it got the squares of Rueda and Borja. Subsequently he/she went to Lérida and after starring in several actions in this territory, al - Mundhir, led his army toward Alava. His expedition continued and passing through Castile Castrogeriz seized. In Leon, Alfonso III awaited them, but the battle did not occur since initiated negotiations between Christians and Muslims. With the arrival of al - Mundhir to power and the beginning of the revolt of al - Andalus such actions were interrupted since the events of the interior demanded urgent attention. He/She would thus allow Alfonso III to continue with its policy of territorial expansion

Al - Mundhir came to power after the death of his father in the year 886, his short reign was dedicated to a single cause, stop the Andalusian revolt led by Ibn Hafsun ibn Hafsun.

The beginnings of this uprising date back to the reign of Muhammad I, since in 879, the mountainous areas of the South of al - Andalus, populated mostly by Berbers and muladis, raised their voices against the emir of Córdoba. Then came small revolts, which barely lasted a few days and were dissolved easily. It is evident that this movement needed a leader, and this was Ibn Hafsun ibn Hafsun.

While al - Mundhir received the pledge of allegiance and was present among his troops; Ibn Hafsun lit peasants overwhelmed by paying taxes and illegal contributions. His soldiers adored him, because I knew to encourage them during difficult times. Ibn Hafsun was gradually occupying more swathes of land, seized Priego, also took the castle of Iznájar and installed there his supporters.

Al - Mundhir decided, in the second season after coming to the throne, to take harsher measures against Ibn Hafsun, so in the spring of the 888, they left Cordoba the Umayyad armies ready to snatch all the land occupied by the rebels and to besiege the symbol of the power of ibn Hafsun, Bobastro. Al - Mundhir besieged Archidona, this city soon surrendered, but the leaders of the uprising were there were executed, al - Mundhir was gradually recovering the lost territories and once completed this first phase of his plan, went to the fortress of Bobastro. Al - Mundir besieged the city and shortly after received the proposition of Ibn Hafsun negotiate, it undertook to submit to his power and was willing to back down in Exchange for security for him and his family. Al - Mundhir accepted the conditions imposed by Ibn Hafsun and even swore solemnly to respect his life. Available quickly enough Ibn Hafsun abandon Bobastro and hmps to Cordoba and ordered the cadi of his army to draft the terms of the surrender of the rebel. Al - Mundhir sent also fifty full of rich present to Bobastro mules to Ibn Hafsun could carry your luggage and your family. In this way the convoy headed towards the entrance of the fortress of Bobastro, at the same time Ibn Hafsun accompanied by his most loyal men scared away the escort and took hold of the rich treasures promised by al - Mundhir. Amir feeling duped flew into a rage and vowed that not you move site of Bobastro until Ibn Hafsun not to fall into their hands. But it could not fulfill his oath since shortly after he/she fell ill and died while his brother Abd Allah was responsible for the power.

Al - Mundhir despite his brief reign was very appreciated by the chroniclers of the time since everyone agrees that had he/she lived some years more would have ended with the Andalusian revolt.

Bibliography

GUICHARD, p. "New Muslims", in history of Spain. Antonio Domínguez Ortiz, vol III. Barcelona, Planeta, 1989.

JOVER ZAMORA, J.M. (dir). "Muslim Spain (711-1031)", in history of Spain. Menéndez Pidal, vol. IV. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1994.

Martin, J.L. "The medieval Spain", in Manual of the history of Spain. José Luis Martín, vol II. Madrid, 16 story.

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