Biography of King of la taifa de Sevilla Al-Mutadid (1016-1069)

King of the taifa of Seville born in 1016 and died February 7, 1069. Under his rule the Sevillian realm reached its growing stage and a position of pre-eminence over the other taifas of peninsular noon. His real name was Abu Amr Abbad ibn Muhammad.

Better known by the name of al - Mu' mu'tadid, was son of Abul Qasim Muhammad I, who had been the founder of the dynasty in the Kingdom of Seville abbadi. During his childhood Abbad was handed over as a hostage by his father to the dethroned cordovan Caliph Alí ibn Yahya, who in 1027 managed to undergo a bad Sevilla defended their authority, but asked hostages to ensure the loyalty of the city; the fact that Muhammad I surrender to Abbad provided a huge popularity among the Sevillians, which earned him to take solo the reins of power. Abbad returned to Seville, where he received a careful education and for many years lived in the shadow of the heir, his brother Ismail, real executor of paternal policy. Abbad became heir to the Kingdom of Seville to the death of Ismail in 1039 and succeeded his father the 26 January 1042, charge for haajib and taking the honorific title of al - Mu' mu'tadid. With the realm he inherited also the role of binder of the party Al-Andalus or Arab, opposed to the Berber or African, whose representation was the hammudids of Malaga, is proclaiming Caliphs. al - Mu' mu'tadid continued fiction hatched by his father and faithful to the False Hisham II Abul Qasim Muhammad had elevated in 1035 to legitimize the dynasty has been declared.

Al - Mu' mu'tadid continued wars initiated by his father and the first year of his reign, was the death of his enemy Muhammad of Carmona, although Berber taifa followed in war with Sevilla with Ishaq I. This did not prevent from Seville to also continue the expansive work initiated by Abul Qasim and in 1044 attacked and annexed the weak taifa of Mértola, governed by Ibn Tayfur, who in the past had joined expeditions of Beja against Sevilla. After Mértola, al - Mu' mu'tadid attempted the conquest of fog, but it just got that it was a Berber coalition against Sevilla which entered the kingdoms of Granada, Badajoz, Málaga and Algeciras. Seville army trying to the conquest of fog was defeated by the aftasies of Badajoz (1050) and forced to retreat. Immediately after al-Muzaffar of Badajoz and the Grenadian army carried out a campaign of devastation in the Seville lands. But al - Mu' mu'tadid did not remain inactive and counterattacked with the conquest of fortresses whose name do not mention the Chronicles and terrible raids over enemy territory. Ibn Yahya of fog, unable to bear more harassment from Seville, signed peace with al - Mu' mu'tadid. The connivance of Seville and fog triggered the wrath of al - Muzaffar of Badajoz, which invaded fog in the West; This time it was Al-' mu'tadid which came in defense of the plaza and although in principle his cavalry was rejected by aftasies squads, was able to inflict a rotunda defeated the army of Badajoz after which unleashed a campaign of punishment against the Kingdom of al - Muzaffar. Al - Mu' mu'tadid undertook the conquest of Evora and to prevent what the businessman asked Ishaq I of Carmona; the Sevillian army defeated the royalists in the outskirts of the town. Finally, al - Muzaffar, without allies, called peace in March 1051, although this was not signed until August of the same year, with intervention in the negotiations of al-Rasid of Cordoba.

With the borders of Badajoz in peace, al - Mu' mu'tadid could deal with the conquest of the small kingdoms of al - Andalus. 1052 was the year of further expansion and in the infeudó to Fath ibn Jalaf the taifa of fog, which was definitely annexed to Sevilla in 1053; also between 1052 and 1053 fell under the Sevillian orbit the kingdoms of Santa María de el Algarve and Huelva; Algeciras fell between 1054 and 1055; in 1063 to al - Mu' mu'tadid annexed the Kingdom of Silves, thus completing the absorption of the taifas of al - Andalus West to Seville.

In January or February of 1060 al - Mu' mu'tadid, after having eliminated the uncomfortable Caliph Algeciras hammudid, believed appropriate to end with fiction invented by his father of the fake Hisham II and proclaimed that it had died in 1044 and that it had not announced it before because of the wars. The following years he dedicated al - Mu' mu'tadid to conquer the kingdoms of Berber belt surrounding Seville by the East and South, while by his limited forces, these kingdoms not raised in absolute danger to Seville. In 1065 seized the kingdoms of Morón and Ronda after sacrificing their kings - who died asphyxiated along with their entourages in the Palace of Seville - and send troops to every one of those squares; Finally, Carmona entered the Seville orbit in 1067.

In the internal order, from approximately 1060 al-' mu'tadid had to face a rebellion led by his own son, Ismail. He was a Secretary, al - Bizilyani, who advised him to rebel against his father and declare themselves independent and build a taifa anywhere. Ismail declared himself Lord of Algeciras, but al-' mu'tadid managed to put its troops warning before it fraguase the rebellion and again Ismail was submissive to his father, who commanded decapitating your child's bad counselor. But Ismail tried a new rebellion against his father, as fruitless as the first; When Ismail was captured al-' mu'tadid killed him with his own hands and after that did run to all his accomplices with the women of his harem. Al - Mu' mu'tadid then appointed heir to his son Muhammad, that happen to his death.

The monarch abbadi experienced its last military against their co-religionists meltdown when the army which had been sent to aid the Arabs of Malaga, who complained about the tyranny of the Grenadian ruling, Badis ibn Habbus, was virtually wiped out by the troops Ziri, who regained the territory. Al - Mu' mu'tadid was extremely angry with his son Muhammad, who had been placed at the head of the expedition and, according to Chronicles, only the beautiful words of Muhammad managed to appease his father, who allowed him to return to Seville, where took place the reconciliation between the two.

But in addition to the internal Al - threats ' mu'tadid had to face the danger posed by Spanish expansionism. In 1063 the Kingdom of Seville was attacked by Fernando I of Castile, who had advanced through the territory of al - Andalus, on the Kingdom of Badajoz during the previous decade and plunging dramatically by de Toledo. Aware of the weakness of the Sevillian realm against castellano, al - Mu' mu'tadid met with Fernando I and offered gifts, but in the end was forced to suffer the humiliation of buy peace by an annual tribute.

Al - Mu' mu'tadid died of a fulminant angina six years after having mortgaged his Kingdom into Spanish. Happened to his son Abul Qasim Muhammad, which began the decline of the dynasty.

The Chronicle of Ibn Hayyan described Abu Amr Abbad ibn Muhammad al-' mu'tadid as an intelligent man with good looks, with a fondness for women. He had the good political choice as a favorite daughter of Mujaahid of Denia whom married before 1040; but he had also a harem with more than 70 slaves - and whereby they arrived to spend more than 800 women-given twenty sons and an equal number of daughters. He had a reputation for extremely cruel man, which testifies to the garden which was opposite his palace decorated by Pikes with heads of his enemies, making even embalming so that they preserve their features. However it was a lover of the arts and the poetry and generous pay welded. Under his reign, Seville was embellished with new palaces and met a large economic and trade development that allowed the emission of a high grade gold coins.

Bibliography

BOSCH VILA, J. The Seville Islamic 712-1248. Seville, 1984.

DOZY, R. Histoire des Muslim d'Espagne juste la conquête de l' Cordoba pas les Almoravides. Paris, 1932.

JOVER ZAMORA, J.M. (dir). "The Taifa kingdoms. Al - Andalus in the 11th century,"in history of Spain Menéndez Pidal, vol. VIII-I. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1994.