Biography of Califa de Córdoba Al-Qasim ibn Hammud (959-1036)

Eighth cordovan Caliph of al - Andalus (1018-1021, 1023) and Governor of Seville born to 959 and died in Malaga in June 1036. He/She was a brother of the former Caliph, Ali Ibn Hammud (1016-1018), he/she was murdered in Malaga, when he/she suffered imprisonment by order of his nephew. He/She belonged to the dynasty of North African the Idrisi, founder of the city of Fez (Morocco), whose origins go back to the own Mahoma. His reign was conditioned by the distrust of the people from Cordoba to a foreign monarch and continuous fitna (civil war) that said, for the throne of Athens, firstly with his nephew, Yahya ibn Alí ibn Hammud, and later an Umayyad suitor, Abd al-Rahman V.


When his brother Ali Ibn Hammud was killed, the night of 21-22 March 1018, the Berbers rushed to inform al - Qasim, the then Governor of Seville, and urged him to go to Cordoba. Al - Qasim quickly entered the city and took the title or laqab of al - Mamum (' the one who inspires confidence'). The first measure taken by the new Caliph was to punish those responsible for the death of his brother. Soon he/she met serious challenges for govern, because on the one hand dependence that had of the Berbers and, for another, to be the pretender to the throne, Al - Murtada Abd al-Rahman IV , Umayyad increasingly had more supporters and had managed to put together a respectable army composed of all hostile elements to the hammudid dynasty: amiries, Umayyad supporters and Christian mercenaries. But, thanks to the terrible mistake of attacking suitor Granada calculation and the courageous defense of the city by their general Zawi ben Ziri, which eventually cost the life to the Umayyad Al - Qasim ben Hammud met with the way clear to reign with some quiet in al - Andalus.

Despite not being a Caliph wanted by Córdoba, as neither had been his brother, during the three consecutive years that managed to stay in power, the capital regained a calm that had not had since the beginning of the reign of Hisham II, in 976. The Caliph possessed sufficient political skills and restraint needed to enjoy, without intending it, a certain popularity and respect among his new subjects. To be responsible for power, al - Qasim decreed a broad general amnesty and abolished a recent provision that forced merchants and wealthy aristocrats to pay for the equipment and the maintenance of a soldier. Also, in an attempt to peel off to the extent of the possible pernicious dependence of the Berbers, al - Qasim recruited important contingent of North African Black mercenaries, who employed as bodyguards. According to rumors, al - Qasim was supporter of the sii trend.

In its relations with the rest of the Peninsular Muslim powers, al - Qasim proved to have insight enough realistic position in al - Andalus, which was pretty fragile without no compromise to agree with numerous wrens that had arisen as to the disintegration of the Caliphate became more evident. Al - Qasim received the visit of Almería Jayran, he/she confirmed in his possessions; did the same with another powerful Chief, the amiri Zuhayr, to that granted in fiefdom the comarcas of Jaen, Baeza and Calatrava. He/She also signed a defensive Pact with the Zaragoza tuchibi Abu al-Mutarrif-Tuchibi, which ensured him a relative safety at the upper mark.

But peaceful and liberal regime which printed al - Qasim was fractured when his two nephews, Yahya and Idris, rose in arms against him claiming his rights to the throne to be sons of the murdered Ali Ibn Hammud. Yahya, the stronger of the two, received the promise of help to overthrow his uncle in retaliation for having been deferred to a second place after the arrival of black mercenaries by the Berbers of Córdoba. Without thinking twice, Yahya landed in Malaga, from Ceuta, and headed for Almeria, where Jayran, always willing to betray his Lord on duty, was waiting for him with a large army to March on Córdoba. Al - Qasim, upon learning of proportions that had taken the uprising, left Cordoba to take refuge in Seville. August 13, 1021, Yahya ibn Ali Ibn Hammud was installed by the Berbers in the Alcázar and proclaimed Caliph, taking the title or laqab of al - Mutalli bi-llah ('the high wing').

Confirmed by the people of Seville with the title of "Prince of the believers" (amir Al umara), al - Qasim had only to wait a year and a half before his nephew left the Caliphate to the continuous riots in which the Andalusian capital was plunged. In February 1023, the little political skill of Yahya made untenable their situation, so he/she took the decision to flee and be safe in Malaga. Al - Qasim was able to return without difficulty to Córdoba and regain the Caliphate, although this time it was only for a few months. Córdoba, fed up with the continual insolence and excesses by the Berbers, who the old Caliph could now not be, resolved to reply with the same violence. At the beginning of August broke out a serious uprising which spread throughout the city, followed by ongoing clashes for several days, which ended with a real massacre of the defenceless civilian population. Al - Qasim, in its attempt to appease the insurrection, ordered to close the gates of the city to prevent the entry of food of all kinds and reduce hunger insurrectionists inhabitants, but they managed to force the exits of the city. Al - Qasim, alone and disappointed by the tone that had taken the events, he/she left on his own initiative Cordoba and turned to Seville again, but his former allies, led by the Qadi Ibn Abbad, denied him entry. Finally, al - Qasim got shelter in Jerez, whose city was besieged by his nephew Yahya. Once was taken prisoner, he/she was taken to Malaga, where it is locked in a Dungeon along with the rest of their relatives. After a few years, al - Qasim appeared dead in his cell, probably murdered.


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