Biography of emperador del Sacro Imperio y duque de Austria Alberto I (1248-1308)

Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1298-1308), born 13 June 1248 and died May 1, 1308, along the river Reuss, in Switzerland. It dethroned and succeeded Adolfo I of Nassau, but saw their rights played by the German nobility and Pope Boniface VIII.

Eldest son of Rudolph I of Habsburg and Gertrudis of Hohenberg, in 1282 received the Government of the duchies of Austria and Styria, together with his brother Rodolfo; a year later, by the agreement of Rheinfelder, he/she obtained the gobiernbo alone. He/She distinguished himself in his administration, and by his military skills, what he/she did to become candidate for the imperial succession, thing that the policy of Rodolfo I could not guarantee. He/She suppressed a rebellion in Styria, contained the Hungarian attacks and fought with success against the Austrian nobles and the Archbishop of Salzburg, who demanded greater powers.

The death of Rodolfo I in 1291, Alberto received the rest of the Habsburg territories in Swabia and the upper Rhine. The Rhenish ecclesiastical electors, headed by Archbishop Gerardo de Maguncia, rejected his candidacy, because of his great power and influence, and in 1292 was elected King of Germany to Adolfo de Nassau, a vassal of Cologne and the count Palatine, which might be more manageable. But it did not. Adolfo concluded an alliance with Eduardo I of England against Felipe IV of France and since 1295 began to know the opposition elcesiastica. The same Pope Bonifacio VIII, was Alberto de Habsburgo, who side with the support of Gerard of Mainz, with Wenceslas II of Bohemia, in 1298 deposed Adolfo, accusing him of having plundered church properties. The matter was resolved with the defeat and death of Adolfo in the battle of Gollsheim (June 2), of its rival, according to ancient Chronicles. Alberto was elected King of Germany in Frankfurt from July 27, 1298 and a month later was crowned in Aachen.

To achieve power, Alberto had had to yield previously to voters and confrimo the privileges that the princes had wrested from the cities, although to change, in the diet of Nuremberg in 1299 reduced taxes on trade. It protected the Jews and in 1299 put an end to the quarrels between France and the Empire, relating to territories of Burgundy, accepting a discretion and sealing the peace with a matrimonial Alliance, signed at Tours in December. In August of 1300 he/she was defeated by Juan conde de Hainaut, whom Alberto should recognize the usurpation of the vacant fiefs of Holland and Zealand. Friendship between Alberto I and Felipe the beautiful one of France was viewed with concern by voters, who sensed that the power that sgnificaba that union could separated the Emperor from his influence. On the other hand, Bonifacio VIII, while Alberto had helped him to dethrone Adolfo de Nassau, refused to recognize Alberto until this renounce Imperial rights in the North of Italy. In October of 1300 Pope organized a League against the Emperor in which the former supporters of Adolfo de Nassau joined, and which was headed by the brother of Adolfo, Archbishop Diether de Trier (or Trier). Alberto I resorted to the support of the Rhine cities, promising future — tax cuts and was able to secure peace through several campaigns against the Archbishop of Mainz, who had gotten the four electors of the Rhine is sublevasen. In 1302 King sent ambassadors to Bonifacio for downloaded from the sentence of excommunication and allegations that link him as the murderer of his stronghold Lord, Adolfo de Nassau; but the Pope needed the help of the emperor to cope successfully to Felipe IV of France and April 30, 1303 Alberto of Austria granted papal recognition. The Emperor responded with the pledge of allegiance to the Pope and the promise not to send Imperial vicars to Lombardy and Tuscany in the period of five years.

Resolved the lawsuit against the Papacy, Alberto I could work to strengthen his dynastic position within the Empire, which forced him to return your view to the East. Its cuñando Wenceslao II of Bohemia, King of Poland from 1300, wanted to ensure the inheritance of the Crown of Hungary in his son, Wenceslaus III. The Alliance between Bohemia and France would have meant a great danger to the Empire and Alberto launched is using the issue as soon as possible and in 1304 launched a campaign against Bohemia. The death of Wenceslao II in 1304 made III Wenceslao to abandon their claims and the death in 1306 ended the dynasty of Bohemia and Alberto failed to ensure the possession of Moravia and Bohemia as imperial fiefs for his son Rodolfo. The emperor also tried to make Thuringia as a fief of the Empire, but his defeat in May of 1307 against Federico margrave, combined with the death of the heir Roldolfo, a month later, caused that Bohemia passed to Duke Henry of Carinthia and they set the tone for new rebellions. Juan of Swabia, son of Rodolfo and nephew of the Emperor, since he/she had reached the age of majority had claimed on several occasions the territories which had belonged to his family, to which Alberto had always refused. A new insurrection by the Swiss forced the emperor to go against them, accompanied by several nobles who had conjured to give death, including his nephew Juan. Alberto was stabbed by his nephew and murdered with a blow to the head by Juan Walter de Eschenbach.

From his marriage to Isabel, daughter of count Meinhardo of the Tyrol, had Alberto five sons and six daughters, one of whom, Agnes of Austria, was Queen of Hungary. Alberto I was buried in the Cathedral of Speyer, where Inés of Austria was to erect a monument in his memory, the Königsfelden. He/She was succeeded by Enrique de Luxemburgo, who reigned as Henry VII. About Alberto I forged a legend in Switzerland which condemned cruel and tyrannical, that it has been properly removed by current historians.

Bibliography

DIEGO HERNANDO, M. The Empire in medieval Europe. Madrid, 1996.

HALLER, j. and DANNENBAUER, H. From the Carolingians to the Satufer. Old vintage of the German Emperors (900-1250). Mexico D. f., 1974.

SCHARAMM, P. Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio: Studien zur Geschichte des römischen Erneuerungsgedankens vom Ende des karolingischen Reiches bis zum Investiturstreit. Darmstadt, 1957.

THOMPSON, J.W. Feudal Germany. Chicago, 1928.

JMMT