Biography of King of Yugoslavia Alejandro I (1888-1934)

King of Yugoslavia. He was born in Cetinje on December 16, 1888 and died in Marseilles on October 9, 1934. Educated in exile, he entered Serbia in 1909 after being named Crown Prince (by resignation of his older brother). Regent since 1914, led the Serbian armies in wars of the Decade of the ten. Its authoritarianism is already outlined in the years prior to his coronation as King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1921), who openly showed when he must confront the cohesion of his Kingdom. He ruled dictatorially since 1929, since adopting the unitarist name of "Kingdom of Yugoslavia", and approving reforms with identical meaning. He was killed in Marseille (1934) by a Macedonian separatist because of esto.

The Prince Alejandro Karageorgevich, Regent of Serbia

Alejandro (in Serbian, Aleksandar) was the son of Pedro I Karageorgevich, King of Serbia (from 1918, of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) and of Zorka Petrovic-Njegos, Montenegrin Princess. The fourth of the sons of these (the second man), was born in exile, in the country of origin of his mother, since his family had had to leave Serbia being dethroned and replaced by the Obrenovich in 1858. He studied in different European countries such as Switzerland (Geneva), where he lived with his father, and since 1889 in Russia (Petersburgo), where he was imperial page from 1904.

When his brother Jorge resigned the throne in 1909, Alejandro was appointed Crown Prince (March 28); He then entered in Serbia for the first time (the Obrenovich had become extinct in 1903 with the King murder Alejandro and his family). During the second Balkan war against Bulgaria (1913), he commanded Serbian armies. Shortly before the first world war exploding was appointed regent (June 24, 1914); in the course of this new conflict had the Supreme Head of the army of his country. Although initially could not stop the Austro-Hungarian offensive and Serbia was invaded, the Central Empires ended up being defeated, and Alejandro Prince entered victorious, at the head of his troops, in Belgrade on October 31, 1918.

It was he who proclaimed on December 1, 1918, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, whose first monarch was his father Pedro I. Prince Alejandro continued as Regent. The following years, in front of a group of power faced with the party of Nikola Pasic, whose ideology was very similar to his own, but who preferred a parliamentary monarchy against the authoritarian conception of Prince Alejandro.

Alejandro I, King of Yugoslavia

His father died in 1921, he was proclaimed King on 16 August; shortly before suffered, without consequences, an attack. The following year married María de Hohenzollern, daughter of King Fernando I of Romania (June 8, 1922). His first efforts went to the structuring of its heterogeneous Kingdom, made up of people of different language and religious faith. Not all of them had the same degree of adhesion: Croats, especially, were soon unwilling to integrate deeply.

There were numerous changes in Government, and on June 20, 1928 a Montenegrin Deputy killed during a session of the Skupština ("Parliament") to other members, including Stjepan Radic, head of the Croatian peasant party. The remaining Croat members of Parliament withdrew from the Skupština. Alejandro I, instead of looking for a compromise that apaciguase spirits, dissolved Parliament. He abolished also the 1921 Constitution and banned political parties, establishing in this way a real dictatorship (January 6, 1929). Clear sign of this new attitude authoritarian (and Unitarian) was the adoption for the country of the name "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" (October 3).

He reorganized the administration of the State, divided the country into new provinces, created a political police and adopted legislation and unique educational plans. Even the holidays would be the same for all. On September 3, 1931 passed a Constitution very little liberal civil rights and judicial independence, which remained under his control the direction of the country. This accentuated the Croatian opposition, and also the macedonia and Serbian liberal. To try to improve economic conditions he approached in 1933 to Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Romania the little Entente, with Turkey, Greece and Romania signed the Balkan Entente (1934). It also renewed the friendship with France, which had his sympathy.

The internal political discontent, expressed openly, and the economic crisis, which could not overcome, made him consider the possibility of restoring a full parliamentary system. However, on October 9, 1934, during a visit of State by France (minutes after landing), he was killed in Marseille by Vlada Gheorgiev, terrorist Macedonian nationality Bulgarian and belonging to the VMRO ("organization revolutionary for the liberation of Macedonia"). Louis Barthou, French Minister of Foreign Affairs, who accompanied him, and two bystanders they were killed in the same attack. The eldest of their three children, Pedro II, who was under age, and was left under the tutelage of his uncle the Regent Pablo Karageorgevich happened. His other two sons were the Princes Tomislav and Andrés (Andrej).

Bibliography

BRISSON, Ch. Alexandre de Yougoslavie, roi liberateur. (Paris, P.Duval: 1935).

BROOCH, F. Assasinat Alexandre Ier et Louis Barthou, Marseille, le 9 octobre 1934. (Paris; Balland: 1977). DARBY, H.C.; SETON-WATSON, R.W.; AUTY, P.; LAFFA, R.G.D. and CLISSOLD, S. brief history of Yugoslavia. (Madrid, Espasa-Calpe: 1972).

EYLAN, C. The vie et mort d'Alexandre Ier, King of Yugoslavia. (Paris, B. Grasset: 1935).

SAINT-BAR, Th FORAN. Les Karageorges rois de Serbie et de Yougoslavie. (Paris, Christian: 1999).

GRAHAM, S. Alexander of Yugoslavia. (New Haven, Yale University Press: 1939).

JUDAH, T. The Serbs: history, myth and the destruction of Yugoslavia. (New Haven, Yale University Press: 1997).

ROBERTS, A. The turning point; the assassination of Louis Barthou and King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. (New York, St.Martin completo Press: 1970).

Links on the Internet

http://4yg.us/1iF9 ; Page with information about the Karageorgevich (in English). http://4yg.us/1iFa ; Page with information and pictures of the King Alejandro Karageorgevich (in English).