(1612-1647)'/> (1612-1647)' /> (1612-1647)' /> Biography of Giuseppe d' Alessi <small>(1612-1647)</small> - TheBiography.us

Biography of Giuseppe d' Alessi (1612-1647)

Goldsmith and Italian revolutionary, born in Polizzi Generosa (Sicily, province of Palermo) in 1612 and died in Palermo on 22 August 1647.

Biographical synthesis

Goldsmith by profession, having been a time in Naples, was inspired by the example of Masaniello in this city to lead a popular uprising on 15 August 1647. Its purpose was not to promote a revolution or to discuss the Spanish sovereignty, but achieve a better government that end with the hunger and the misery that ravaged Sicily ("revolt of the bread" was named). At first seemed to succeed, taking control of the city, but the nobility took the support of the people offering him positions, titles and money to make it seem a collaborationist. Finally, on August 22, one week after the start of the insurrection, he/she was caught by the crowd and beheaded.

D'Alessi, head of the "revolt of the bread" in Palermo

He was the son of a quarryman from Polizzi; soon he/she went to reside in Palermo, where he/she had House and shop in the neighborhood of the Conceria ('Curtidores'). Tough and skilled with the sword, in 1647 (then numbered about 35 years of age) it was claimed by the justice for his involvement in a murder and imprisoned; He/She escaped shortly after, taking refuge in Naples. In this city had exploded shortly before, on July 7, a revolt against tax hikes, led by Tommaso Aniello, "Masaniello", fisherman that he/she witnessed. Meanwhile, in Sicily, where the famine had spread, it had failed in may uprising which had been Child La Pelosa. However, disgruntled only hoped to find a leader able to stand up again.

In this context d'Alessi returned to the city, having checked in Naples the power that had a crowd acting in unison. He/She intended to take advantage of this force to establish a just Government that ended with misery. D'Alessi, not lacking in imagination, Verve, generosity, strength, boldness and tenacity, did you know his brother Francisco, clerk of the Tavola (urban financial institution) who had some culture, and other relatives and acquaintances; many others, such as wandering Giuseppe, consul of the tanners, or Pietro Pertuso, Captain of the people, adhered to their purposes, drawing together a plan of action. It was chosen as a time to start the uprising on 15 August, feast day (María Asunción), during which the Spanish viceroy of Sicily (Pedro Fajardo de Zúñiga, Marqués de los Vélez), judges and other notables visited the shrines of Maredolce and Gibilrossa.

However, the viceroy had news of their intentions, and convened the same day to some of the consuls to ensure their loyalty to the Crown. One of those who did not go to the invitation, before the delay which Yes had done, believed that they had been killed and gave the voice of alarm. Immediately a crowd gathered and there was uproar. D'Alessi took the tumult to put at the forefront of the planned revolt, having been rolled back already rivals by command. It rose to the fishermen of the Kalsa and took weapons and ammunition in the bastion of the Tuono. In Porta Nuova had a showdown with the small Spanish garrison, until the viceroy, to avoid a massacre, retired and embarked, although only away to the next the Arenella beach. The revolt succeeded, unstoppable, while the City Government and the nobility were barricaded in their palaces or took refuge in monasteries or in their rural possessions. The viceroy, from his boat, attending the popular success impotent.

D'Alessi, with the city in their hands that same afternoon, advised by his brother and other supporters, to prevent the uncontrolled disarmed the crowd and established the death penalty to the looters. The situation seemed to stabilize thanks to d'Alessi moderation, with a few claims not attacking the sovereignty of Felipe IV of Spain, screaming significantly "Viva il re e fuori il mal governo' ('long live the King, outside misrule'). Named captain general, constituted an own militia, with which, vain, walked through the streets of the city. No experience of Government, despite its good intentions he/she fell under the influence of the Inquisitor Diego Trasmiera, which in fact was allied with the nobility, and that took religious respect for d'Alessi to be imposed as his main Advisor (for example, prevented the release of the formerly imprisoned Francesco Baronio, writer and Secretary of the Council, which would have been able to influence at that). It also had as such some jurists of little importance (except a lawyer named Lo Giudice), that might just help you.

On the other hand, soon sent to the list of popular claims nobility: full restoration of the privileges granted to the Sicilians in the s. XIII by King Pedro III of Aragon; formation of a new Government made up of three nobles and commoners three; exclusion of the same and all administrative charge to non-panormitanos; Suppression of tax burdens. These demands were unacceptable to the nobility, while the viceroy did not want to be forced to make concessions. In this way, they tried to corrupt d'Alessi with advantageous positions and titles, and cause you to lose popular favor, thus helping also bribes and defamations. On 16 August the City Senate, contemporizando, invited d'Alessi to participate in a meeting in the Church of S. Giuseppe dei Teatini, also attended by consuls, some nobles, Ottavio spear, Prince of Trabia, and a popular representation. This Assembly adopted all proposals for a fairer administration, which should ensure the participation of artisans in the Government, always keeping the respect for law and the Spanish Crown.

D'Alessi fall and failure of the revolt

But the nobility and Trasmiera continued his work, and instigated to judges who offered to d'Alessi "Illustrious" title, being appointed perpetual trustee of the common, confirmation of the position of captain general and a salary of 2,000 ducats per year (and his brother Francisco,) main-consul and procurator fiscal charges. D'Alessi was in a delicate situation, each time with less prestige, pronouncing the first accusations of Collaborationism. Aware of his lack of strength, it relied on the return of the viceroy to save their achievements, and strove so to convince their supporters of the need for this fact, what more extremists were opposed. On August 21 the side that the Government returned to the viceroy was enacted, and seemed at first returning to normal. But rumors had its effect, adding now that d'Alessi had dealings with the French to give Palermo; also, the financial situation was bad, and fishermen felt handicapped.

They were precisely those who organized and dragged after Yes to many others, gathering some 10,000 people, in front of which were Trasmiera and various nobles. They were launched towards the Conceria in search of d'Alessi, whom no one seemed already ready to defend (two days earlier that he/she did not pay the men of the guard). This hid in various locations before being located on day 22; brought to the steps of the Church of the Madonna della Volta, was beheaded there by a gentleman called Platamone, and then the Prosecutor Pietro Sbernia led his head throughout the city on top of a Pike. His brother Francesco and other supporters ran similar luck, adding in addition various looting. With his death would also fail the "revolt of the bread", which had lasted only a week. D'Alessi, as Masaniello in Naples, eager to justice but respectful of the order, had wanted to reconcile two bitter enemies, the nobility and the people, lacking in culture and experience necessary, likely in addition to the adulation and the rapid success, and without honest advisers. The angry panormitanos soon would notice their error, even to do penance. two years later they would stand up, but already without the necessary organization, soon suppressed by the new viceroy, Cardinal Teodoro Trivulzio.

Bibliography

BIANCHINI, L. Storia economica civile della Sicilia. (Naples, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane: 1971).

Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Vol. 2. (Rome, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana: 1960-1998).

NATOW, L. Storie e lesgende di Sicilia. Vol. 2: "Sotto i re di Casa d'Austria '. (Palermo, Flaccovio S.F.: 1983).

NATOLI, L. Storia di Sicilia. (Palermo, Flaccovio S.F.: 1982).

GARCIA, LA RIBOT The antiespanola revolt of Messina: causes and background (1591-1674). (Valladolid, University: 1982).

SORRENTO, l. "la Notizia of ' OLA di Sicilia nel'anno 1647", in Arch stor. per the Sicilia orientale, X (1913) 136-159.

The Revolt of Palermo in 1647", in The Cambridge Historical Journal, VIII (1946) 3, 129-144.

Links on the Internet

http://4yg.us/1iGZ ; Page with information about the revolts of 1647 and other anti-Spanish uprisings (in Italian). http://4yg.us/1iH1 ; Page with extensive information on the revolt of Palermo (in Italian).