Biography of Zar de Rusia Alexei o Alejo Mijailovitch (1629-1676)

Tsar of Russia born March 10, 1629 in Moscow and died January 29, 1676. Son and successor of the Tsar Miguel Feodorovich, was the second Tsar of the Romanov Dynasty.

He occupied the throne at age 16 and left the Government in the hands of his favourites Plechtchelev and Morosov, which increased indirect taxes, customs and financial monopolies, which provoked the indignation of the people which, insurrectionist in may 1648, Plechtchelev and killed. As a consequence of this revolt, the Tsar promulgated code of Sobor in 1649, whose basic principles were the elevation of nobles in service and the structuring of the Russian society in rigid and immutable classes.

Alexei married MarĂ­a Miloslavsky Muscovite noble; then he/she carried out the Organization of the army according to European models, which called on Russia to official instructors foreign. With the new army now constituted, broke out a revolt in Poland in 1652 which lasted until 1667 and for whose pacification counted with the help of the Cossacks of Khmelnitsky. Actually, the Cossacks were who asked for help to Russia in its war against Poland, but this was nothing more than an excuse used by the Tsar for his expansionist projects.

Initially the war was favorable to Russia, which conquered the cities of White Russia in power poles and later those of Lithuania; However, in 1655, fearing an alliance between the Cossacks and the Swedes on Carlos X, he/she made peace with Poland and declared war on Sweden. This new conflict lasted until 1658, when he/she signed a peace with Sweden facing the threat that the Cossacks pactasen with Poland. He/She declared again the war to Poland and the Cossacks of Ukraine, and annexed Eastern Ukraine, once again Sweden intervened and forced the Tsar to sign the peace of Kardis in 1661, which he/she had to return the territories conquered in Livonia.

It was then when the figure of Pedro Doroshenko, who, in 1664, took command of the Ukrainian army and asked for help to the Ottoman Empire appeared in Ukraine. The deployment of forces of the Ottomans caused alarm both Russians and poles, which were quick to sign the peace treaty of Andrussovo in 1667, whereby Alexei undertook to withdraw from Lithuania in Exchange for keeping the White Russia and Eastern Ukraine together with Kiev.

In domestic politics, the Tsar promoted colonization of Siberia, which had begun in 1582 and which now ended with the occupation of the whole. He/She organized the Russian administration (the Prikaz) departments and appointed voivodas for the provinces. Supporter of the opening to the West, instigated the reform of certain rites of the Church as well as the liturgical books according to the theories of the Metropolitan Nikon, but had to face a stiff opposition led by Awakum, which brought together the Council of 1666-1667 to ratify reforms and condemning supporters of the ancient faith (raskol). From that moment would coexist an official Church subjected to the power of the Government and an old faith limited to the people. It established commercial relations with China, Persia and the European States and enacted the compilation of laws in different provinces forming a single body of doctrine titled Ulagenie, the most comprehensive of Russia until 1832. He/She began the work of improvement of the cities of the Empire and established the first Theatre in Moscow. Married second wife Natalia Navichkine, which led to clashes in court to the death of Alexei between his first wife's relatives and those of Natalia, which resulted in the exile of the Naryshkins family and the seizure of power of the Miloslavskys, leaving isolated Natalia at the Court. He/She had 16 children between the two marriages. He/She left the throne his eldest son Fyodor, who was succeeded by his half-brother Pedro el Grande.

In the last years of his rule he/she had to deal with the revolt of peasants led by the Cossack Stenka Razin in 1668, that devastated the lower Volga region. Czarist troops subdued the revolt in 1671, when the rebels were defeated at the battle of Simbirsk. The defeat blew up a mutiny against Stenka Razin, which was delivered to the Tsar and butchered by his own guerrillas.

To the death of Alexei in 1676, the Russian State was not limited only to the area of Muscovy, but it stretched by a huge territory from the Caucasus to the Caspian and North Asia to the Pacific.

JACJ