Biography of Califa de al-Andalus Alí ibn Hammud (964-1018)

Sixth cordovan Caliph of al - Andalus (1016-1018), the first not belonging to the dynasty of the Umayyad. Belonging to the North African dynasty Idrisi, founder of the city of Fez (Morocco), whose origins are dated back to the own Mahoma, his two-year reign was constantly embroiled in a bloody fitna (civil war) by the cordovan throne, which contributed to the progressive dismantling of the Caliphate State. He/She died assassinated in Córdoba, March 22, 1018, while I was taking a bath in the Caliphs Palace.

The Hammudids began to stand out in the internal affairs of al - Andalus under the Caliphate of Sulayman, who them entrusted the Government of Ceuta, Tangiers, Malaga and Seville, in payment to their collaboration to bring down the previous Caliph, Muhammad II. The anarchy which prevailed in al - Andalus prompted the Governor of Ceuta, Ali Ibn Hammud, search the caliphal power. To achieve this end, Ibn Hammud was presented before the eyes of Córdoba as the legal heir of the deposed Umayyad Caliph Hisham II, who, according to this, had appointed him his legal heir (el-ahd wali). Thus, in the spring of the year 1016, after having negotiated the solidarity neutrality of the Zirid of Granada and concluded several treaties with various governors imposed by the Caliph Sulayman, which could highlight Jayran in Almeria and Ibn Yahya al-Mundhir of Zaragoza, landed in Malaga and went to Córdoba, which seizedthe 1st of July, without little resistance from the demoralized Sulayman, who was immediately beheaded by the own Ali Ibn Hammud.

Once imposed on the throne, Ali Ibn Hammud adopted the title or laqab of al - Nasir li-din Allah ('Defender of the religion of Allah'), and set out to defend the cause of his legitimate appointment in addition to also increase their own personal assets. Although the new Caliph, as well as all the ones from Morocco, stay by full berberizado, from the outset was aware of the duties it imposed its new condition of Andalusian Caliph. He/She spent the first months of his reign trying to gain the sympathies of Córdoba, conservatives like in any other city of al - Andalus, but terribly tired and decimated by so much civil war and deprivation of all kinds. Always with an exquisite moderation policy, Ali Ibn Hammud could control all the movements of the Berber mercenaries who were still stationed in the city. The crimes of common law which, to date, were committed in the city protected by political chaos and disorganization of the action of Justice, were punished with the rigour which marked the Koranic law in each case, always under the precepts of fairness, it were well punish a Berber or an Arabic. Thanks to the severity with which the new sovereign personally ensuring strict adherence to Koranic law, the vast majority of Córdoba began to restore calm, security and, more importantly, confidence in the institution of the Caliphate.

However, impartial and policy full of sanity that Ali Ibn Hammud practiced in his reign varied completely when appeared on the scene a new Umayyad pretender to the throne, another great-grandson of the great Caliph Abd al-Rahman III (912-961), also called as his great-grandfather, which had been withdrawn from all political activity in Valencia since the beginning of the reign of Hisham IIwhere he/she was discovered by the intriguing and ambitious slave Jayran in Almeria. The suitor called Abd al-Rahman Al - Murtada (' the one who enjoys the divine satisfaction'), and is put under the command of a powerful army garrisoned at the top mark and in the Levant; It also featured the collaboration of the tuchibi Ibn Yahya al-Mundhir of Zaragoza and the count of Barcelona. With such contingent of troops, the objective was to go to Cordoba and overthrow Ali Ibn Hammud.

Upon learning of props that had the Umayyad suitor, Ali Ibn Hammud was alarmed enough; abandoned moderation and looked for their own salvation in the only place where could find it, beside the Berbers, since Cordoba population was not the work of helping a Prince who ultimately was foreign. Gradually, the Berbers regained its ancient immunity and privileges while Córdoba, both aristocrats and the rest of the civilian population, were subjected to a true regime of terror and harassment. Ali Ibn Hammud punished the people of Cordoba with all sorts of arbitrary and authoritarian, measures such as repeated arrests, confiscation of weapons and goods, made-up denunciations, huge fines, etc.

The situation in Cordoba became so tense as when the Caliph made his entrance in the city for the first time two years earlier. The only possible salvation through the Elimination of the despotic Caliph and thus pave the way to the Umayyad suitor.

Ali Ibn Hammud met the rebels anticipate and prepare a powerful army of Berber mercenaries in order to cope with the Umayyad in Jaén. But, when he/she was engaged in that task, the night from 21 to 22 March of the year 1018 was killed by three of their domestic while he/she was taking a bath in the outbuildings of the Alcázar. After throwing a heavy bucket of copper to the head, they auctioned him stabbed to death, and the killers managed to escape covered by the darkness of the night.

To avoid greater evils, the hammudids supporters warned the brother of the dead Caliph Al-Qasim Ibn Hammud, at that time Governor of Seville, so quickly occupy the place left by his brother. Six days later, Al - Qasim Ibn Hammud arrived in Cordoba to proclaim himself Caliph.

Political and social decomposition of the Caliphate was already only a matter of short time. The process went on an unstoppable dynamic.

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