Biography of Gueidar Aliev (1923-2003)

Azerbaijani politician, President of the Republic between 1993 and 2003, born on May 10, 1923 in the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan and died on December 12, 2003 in the United States. His full name is Ali Reza Geidar Aliev ogly.

At age 18 he/she joined as senior officer in the security services, in 1945, he/she joined the CPSU and until 1949 participated in the Council of Ministers of Nakhichevan. After spending two years at the Academy of the KGB (1949-1950), in 1957 he/she graduated from the State University of the Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan. He/She chaired the local KGB between 1964 and 1967, with the rank of general of division. Candidate for Member of the Committee Central of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan (PCA) since 1966, in 1969 entered as a full member in that organ and its Politburo in quality of first Secretary (until 1982). Under the protection of the President of the Soviet KGB and future general Secretary of the CPSU, Yuri Andropov, in 1971 he/she agreed to the Central Committee of the CPSU, five years later was candidate Member of the Politburo and finally a full member in 1983. The previous year he/she had been appointed first Deputy Prime Minister. He/She was also Deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1970-1989), and its lower House, the Soviet of the Union (1974-1979). In this period he/she received three orders of Lenin, two hero of the Socialist Labour medals and a gold medal in the hammer and sickle.

With the coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev, Aliev, convinced Communist, expressed reluctance to the reform programme, so on 21 October 1987 resigned from the Central Committee and Politburo. After three years of silence, at the beginning of 1990 appeared to denounce the repression of Azeri nationalist demands. In 1991 was low in the Communist Party and went on to preside over the Assembly of the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan, bastion from which maintained a policy of non-cooperation with the then-leader in Baku, Ayaz Mutalibov. After the overthrow of this in 1992, he/she was elected Vice President to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan.

The rebellion of Colonel Guseinov against the new azeri President A. Elchibey, at the beginning of June 1993, led to the dramatic return of the old apparatchiks. On 15 June, he/she was elected President of the Milli Majlis ('Parliament'), and after the flight of Elchibey, day 26 Chamber granted him presidential power. The crisis ended four days later to the Aliev reappointed Prime Minister Guseinov, which agreed a power-sharing.

On August 29, 1993 dismissal of Elchibey was ratified in referendum, which Aliev presented as a plebiscite on his behalf, and on October 3 with 90% of votes defeated two candidates unknown, chosen for the occasion, in the elections for President of the Republic. In the legislation held the day 12-26 November 1995 and with four parties banned, the new Azerbaijan (YAP) Aliev picked up 70% of the vote and 67 of the 125 deputies, among allegations of irregularities. The accusations of authoritarianism and lead the State with Soviet methods have raged since then.

Externally, the most urgent task was the war with Armenian separatists in Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous region in Azerbaijan, and that had caused the fall of two Presidents. Taking advantage of the crisis in Baku, weary karabakhis had continued its conquests in 1993; on September 1 took the strategic city of Quwatli, putting in their hands throughout the southwest of Azerbaijan. Five days later, Aliev met with Russian President Boris Yeltsin in Moscow, he/she gave back to the CIS in Exchange for Russian involvement in the resolution of the conflict. The same day he/she tried with Prime Minister Tansu Çiller, which expressed its concern for the azeri approach to Iran (including a plan of sending troops to the South of Azerbaijan to stop the karabaji until their borders). It was a fact that the regional redefinition of Baku (in times of decidedly favorable to Ankara Elchibey) revived the Iranian rivalry. The reentry into the CIS formalized on September 24, at its eleventh Summit. And on 16 May 1994 in Moscow signed the cessation of hostilities in Nagorno-Karabakh.

Since 1994, Aliev solvents braved various plots (including that of his former associate, Colonel Guseinov) and subtly evolved from their initial positions pro-Russian and pro-Iranian. Indeed, after pursuing some kind of modus vivendi with Armenia (several meetings the President l. Ter-Petrossyan), not allowed to leave the border security in Russian hands and lined up with Kazakhstan in the dispute of the distribution of the oil reserves of the Caspian Sea, where Iran shares the interests of Russia. On September 20, 1994 he/she signed a millionaire exploitation with Western companies and was minority shareholder the international consortium formed in Russia. Subjected to pressure from Moscow and courted by Ankara and Tbilisi to make crude oil through their territory, Aliev, who dreamed of turning Azerbaijan into a sort of "Kuwait of Caucasus", opted to balanced export equal quota of crude oil via the checheno-rusa and georgiano-turca routes. However, it did not implicitly accuse Russia of sponsoring certain coup attempts against him.

Aliev joined, on 4 May 1994, the partnership for peace with NATO and on 22 April 1996 in Luxembourg, signed an agreement of cooperation and commercial collaboration with the European Union. Since the end of the 1990s it established with the Presidents of Georgia, Eduard Shevardnadze, and Ukraine, Leonid Kuchma (the three came to power with the blessings of Moscow) a 'strategic partnership' - that within the CIS was clearly identified against the axis Rusia-Bielorrusia-, which combined interest in the export of azeri crude and shared a pro-Western and pro-atlantica vision.

Since 1999, the health of the President was the subject of quite a few concerns in political circles. In the summer of 2003, leading veteran proposed the candidacy of his son Ilham to the leadership of the Government to ensure the succession, given that the country's Constitution guaranteed the first Minister assumption of power in the event that the President could not exercise their functions. Heydar stood in front of the highest judiciary in the country until the fall of 2003, when, with severe allegations of irregularity and fraud by the opposition, the presidential elections confirmed in office the applicant Aliev Junior. Heydar died two months later at a U.S. clinic.