Biography of José Sobral de Almada-Negreiros (1893-1970)

Poet, playwright, novelist and Portuguese painter, born in rock da Saudade (São Tomé) on April 7, 1893 and died in Lisbon on June 15, 1970, curiously in the same room of the hospital of San Luis de los Franceses in which Fernando Pessoadied years earlier. He was one of the founders of Orpheu in 1915, together with the mentioned poet and Mário de Sá-Carneiro, literary magazine which became the most representative body of the Portuguese avant-garde, in particular of modernism.

Multifaceted and exuberant personality, man championed most avant-garde of his time flows, mainly futurism, bass whose influence wrote exalted manifests, gave lectures and wrote texts doctrinal or severely critical, for example manifesto Anti-Dantas (1916), to dinner do hate ('The scene of hate', published in 1923), Direcção only (1933) or praise da Ingenuidade (1938) or myth-allegory-symbol (also 1938). He carried out some of the theories in Pessoa, and A Engomadeira (1917) was the most successful case.

Cena do hate is a furious attack on all levels of society, written during the three days the Lisbon revolution of 1915. The text, which astonished Pessoa and Sá-Carneiro, was going to be published in no. 3 of Orpheu, but this not finally saw the light while the plates were already prepared. Its publication, and only partial, was delayed to 1923, no. 7 of the magazine contemporary, until j. de Seine rescued him full in 1958. The "Satanic" verses of A dinner do hate are due to an intense cry Misanthrope, nihilistic and provocative of principle-"I yergo Pederast heckled by morons!"-at the end-"I am the seven plagues on the Nile / and the Alma de los Borgia in penalty!"-, compounds with unyielding efforts to capture a radically new language.

Also attached to the experimental theatre, symbolic and dedicated structure, mainly, to the reflection on the relationship of the individual with the feeling of love. His dramatic production include the following works: before start (' before you begin', 1919), is review-Mulher (1928), Pierrot e Arlequim (1924) and S.O.S. (1935).

The prose of fiction of Almada-Negreiros, with identical dedication to the linguistic experimentalism that the rest of their texts, is represented with Nome de Guerra ('Nom de guerre', 1938), novel learning in which the young protagonist discovers love in its yawning carnal side, through which the author shows certain Existentialist affinities.

Almada-Negreiros was the Portuguese avant-garde had more to do with Spain at that time. He collaborated in press and literary works with their covers, pictures and ads. In 1922 he designed the cover of the short Tomás Borrás entitled Trasmundo (1923) novel. During his first visit to Spain, he frequented the tertulia of Pombo coffee led the luminous Ramón Gómez de la Serna; This relationship was born the Almada-Negreiros made to that group of artists and portrait that accompanied the first edition of the book by Gómez de la Serna the sacred crypt of Pombo. Both returned to meet in Lisbon on the occasion of the feast that some writers there supported the Spanish writer in 1925. Later, between 1927 and 1932, he moved to Madrid. He participated in exhibitions of painting and architecture, and was in charge of the decoration of the theater Muñoz Seca of the Barceló cinema, the façade of the San Carlos cinema and the Foundation of the master. Also in Spain wrote articles in several newspapers (the sun above all) and numerous magazines, the importance of black and white, Revista de Occidente, La Gaceta literary or graphic world. In addition, covers designed and illustrated with his works the collection of the novel today, the world novel, the hiperestesica (1928) novels, Gomez de la Serna, the blockhouse (1928), José Díaz Fernández, and the portrait of the author of Julepe de menta (1929), Giménez Caballero.

His complete works, with the addition of some hitherto unpublished texts, were published between 1970 and 1972 in six volumes.

Links on the Internet

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JUAN LAZARO