Biography of Amadeo I de Saboya. King of España (1845-1890)

Son of the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II, and María Adelaida de Austria, Amadeo de Saboya, born in Turin in 1845 and died in the same city on January 18, 1890. He received the title of Duke of Aosta. During his youth underwent le an intensive education military in charge of the colonels Giovanetti and Ricci, as well as general Rossi, after which made several trips by France, England, Turkey, Spain, Denmark or Sweden to complete his training. Soon he could demonstrate his military training to be appointed Chief of grenadiers of Sardinia; He broke in the war against Austria, won a well-deserved reputation in the battle of Custozza and was wounded at the battle of Cavelchina; Thus, the young Prince was rising in the ranks soldier, first with rank of brigadier of Cavalry (1867), for more late to reach Vice Admiral in the Navy.

In 1867 he married with María Victoria dal Pozzo della Cisterna; from this first marriage he had three sons: the Princes Manuel Filiberto, Duke of Aosta; Víctor Manuel, count of Turin and Luis Amadeo, Duke of the Abruzzi.

When Elizabeth II was expelled from the Spanish throne, the courts began the process of choosing a new monarch. The new political system, a hereditary constitutional monarchy, had to have a King loyal to these political principles. A shortlisting of candidates was shuffled by the coalition of September: the Duke of victory (Espartero), Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (known among the people of Madrid as Ole-Ole if I choose to), the Duke of Montpensier, Fernando of Portugal, the Prince Alfonso de Bourbon and the Duke of Aosta. The favorite candidate of general Prim, which at the time was the most important figure in the revolution of 1868, was Amadeo.

The reign of Amadeo I

The result of the vote that made the courts was as follows: the candidacy of Amadeo de Saboya received 191 votes; 64, the Republican solution; 22 the Duke of Montpensier; 8, Espatero; 2, Alfonso de Borbón; and one the infanta Luisa Fernanda (aunt of the above). Therefore, in the same meeting of cuts, el16 November 1870, proclaimed Amadeo I King of Spain. This official acceptance occurred on 4 December of that same year. In fact, Amadeo was only King of a part of the coalition in September, as a candidate of Prim and adept progressives and Democrats. Liberal unionists only accepted him when there was no other solution. The new King had the opposition of Republicans, the Carlists and a part of the aristocracy which yearned to the Bourbons. Even the Church was on their side (it was said that he belonged to a wicked dynasty). Street College students also carried out acts of protest against the appointment of Amadeo. Despite all this, Amadeo profiling as the ideal man to occupy the throne, for his firm constitutional beliefs.

The frigate Numancia led him to the port of Cartagena on 30 December 1870. Just step on Spanish soil, was greeted with the news of the murder of his supporter, general Prim in Madrid. He came to the capital on January 2, directly approaching the Church of Atocha, where the body of the slain general are watched. After the mandatory oath of the Constitution, Amadeo commissioned the formation of Government general Serrano, Duke of la Torre. In the 1871 courts training session, Amadeo reiterated in his opening speech their acceptance of the dictates of the parliamentary majority that represent the Spanish people.

Resolution of the problem of the monarchical continuity, however, had not solved instability living abroad. Exalted matches both the nostalgic of the borbonismo not stopped plotting to provoke the fall of the new monarch. On the other hand, the own ambitions of politicians like Serrano, Sagasta, Martos, Ruiz Zorrilla or Ulloa, made that the Government would be unable to develop their functions normally. Faced with this panorama, Amadeo decided to change the Government of general Serrano and July 24, Ruiz Zorilla appointed head of a new Cabinet. This Ministry lasted only until October 1871. Amadeo decided then to offer the Government to Sagasta and Espartero, but both rejected the offer. On 17 November, Malcampo became the Manager of the Cabinet, although Sagasta acted as supervisor of the same. A vote of censure against Malcampo made the own Sagasta seized power Executive just a month later, on 23 December.

In 1872, Ruiz Zorrilla would return to the Presidency of the Government and shortly after decretaría the dissolution of courts, to political instability. Then began a series of revolts of Carlist sign in Girona, Guipuzcoa, Biscay and Navarre. The Pretender to the throne attempted to advance through Spanish territory, but, defeated in Oroquieta general Moriones, had to return to his French exile. Soon after, Amadeo suffered an attempted bombing in Madrid the Arenal Street. The Federal Republicans tried to take advantage of the situation to rise up against the monarchy in El Ferrol and in Cuban land, independence ideas were going on like wildfire. The reforms that the Government tried to carry out overseas were answered, on January 10, 1873, with a manifesto of the Hispano-Ultramarino Center, which frontally oppose such reforms. It was reached to form a National League of opposition to reforms overseas and 230 representative figures of the to the monarchist publicly requested the return of Alfonso XII and his proclamation as King of Spain.

The army also carried out actions of protest. Artillery gun took the appointment of general Hidalgo as captain general of Catalonia to rise up against such designation, since Hidalgo had participated in the uprising of San Gil in 1866. The dissolution of the weapon was voted favorably by courts and signed by the monarch. After this, Amadeo expressed to the President his desire to abdicate the Spanish throne. This desire was for the moment an unconstitutional action, although Amadeo reiterated the irrevocable decision. The Constitution of July 1, 1869, in paragraph 7 of its article 74, dictated that the monarch was only permitted to abdicate in the event of adoption of a special law, law that had not enacted. On February 11, 1873 the King announced officially to the courts its intention to give up the Crown, in a session which also proclaimed the first Republic, whose address was tasked to Estanislao Figueras.

After embarking on Lisbon, Amadeo immediately departed for Genoa with his family. The poso that left in Spanish politics was in respect to the spirit of constitutional, while never got along with people or the aristocracy. During his reign, Amadeo had lived almost isolated; Indeed, the only people you could trust were the Italian Dragoretti and his assistant, Díaz Moreu, official of the Spanish Navy. The aristocracy, the popular classes, nor own politicians knew how to help you in your difficult task.

After his abdication of the Crown, Amadeo returned to the place that had seen him birth, Turin, where his wife María Victoria died on November 8, 1876. On September 11, 1888 Amadeo married second daughter of Jerome Napoleon and niece yours, Leticia Bonaparte, who would give him a fourth son, Humberto, count of Salemi.

Bibliography

ARTOLA, Miguel. The bourgeoisie revolucinaria, 1808-1874. (Madrid: 1976).

GESTA SÁNCHEZ, Luis. Constitutional history of Spanish. (Madrid: 1964).