Biography of Giuliano Amato (1938-VVVV)

Italian politician, born on May 13, 1938, in Turin, Prime Minister of the Republic on two occasions, from the 18 of June 1992 and until the end of June 1993, and again from April 26, 2000 until June 9, 2001.

He earned a degree in jurisprudence from the University of Pisa (1960) and a master's degree in comparative constitutional law from Columbia University (USA).UU., 1963). Professor of Italian constitutional law and comparative by the University of Rome (1979), previously taught teaching at this Centre (1964-1969), Perugia (1970-1974) and Florence (1974-1975). In 1958 he/she joined in the Socialist Party Italian (PSI), whose Central Committee would be Member 20 years later. In 1967-1968 and 1973-1974 he/she directed the Legislative Office of the Ministry of economic planning and budget.

In the 1983 and 1987 elections he/she was elected Deputy for Turin-Novara-Vercelli, and after serving as Chairman of the Committee for the reform of State shares and Undersecretary of State of the Government, between 1987 and 1989 he/she was Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Treasury. Already at the forefront of the Deputy Secretary-General of the PSI (1988-1992), the disbursement of debt owed to Italy by this country he/she negotiated with the Albanian Government in 1991. In May 1992 the PSI put him at the head of the regional secretariat of Milan, badly desprestigiada by corruption scandals.

Following the resignation of Prime Minister G. Andreotti on 24 April 1992, the outgoing government parties agreed on the candidacy of Amato, who was appointed by President Scalfaro on 18 June, and ten days later formed Government, number 51 since the end of the war. This consisted of the traditional quatripartitto (which ultimately occupied for the last time the Executive, before being swept by the anti-corruption process), that is, the Christian democracy (DC), the PSI, the Italian Liberal Party (PLI) and the Italian Social Democratic Party (PSDI). The coalition had a precarious majority of 15 seats, and for the first time in history had not reached 50% of the vote in the legislative elections on April 5. It was a rather depoliticized team, with presence of economists in size, which were not present "regular", like Andreotti, Craxi (general Secretary of the PSI, which had had their differences with D'Amato in terms of address the party) or the Christian-Democrat Forlani.

Early management of Amato is framed in a context of social and political tension without precedent, with the first judicial investigations of cases of corruption and consequent discrediting of the parties that had dominated the scene since the war, the debate on the reform of the institutions, the pulse of the Mafia to the State (murder of the popular judge Giovanni Falcone(, 23 May 1992), the worsening of the budget deficit and the successive devaluations of the lira, which ended up abandoning the European monetary system to enter floating (17 September 1992). D'Amato released a program of privatization and transformation of the monopolies of the State in joint stock companies and applied saving measures, thus allowing a reduction of the deficit.

At the beginning of 1993 multiplied corruption scandals, the opening of judicial summaries and the arrests of numerous personalities from politics and business, certifying the end of five decades of 'partitocracy' for the general public. Amato got popularity with the arrest of the maximum mafia Chief, Totó Riína (January 15), and tried to keep his Government apart from the temporary political, to focus on the economic issue.

However, on February 19 they had to resign his ministers of Justice, Francesco de Lorenzo, and of the Treasury, Giovanni Goria, which were being investigated by judges. Severely weakened, Amato was subjected to a vote of confidence in Parliament (February 25), whose approval gave the breathing space necessary to take forward by decree a "antitangente" law that was intended to put an end to the bleeding of processed and arrested. The text distinguished between enrichments "personal" and "the party"; the first case is process by the criminal courts, and the second, by the administrative, with disqualification and fines, but not imprisonment. However the initiative sparked popular anger and censorship of opposition, as seen in it an affected parties attempt to evade their responsibilities. After refusing Scalfaro to sign the Decree, D'Amato reversed.

After new ministerial resignations (the last of the head of finance, Franco Reviglio), Amato made his position available to Scalfaro, but asked him to "use it" until April 19, when should submit to referendum issues essential to the reform of the State. After consultation with the overwhelming ' yes ' vote, D'Amato resigned on 22 April 1993 and seven days later is replaced by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, former Governor of the Bank of Italy.

In 1994 he/she was appointed by the then President of the Berlusconi Government President of an organization called the antitrust authority in charge of the control of free competition, with only complaint with the executive functions. In July 1996 he/she accepted the proposal of the PDS leader Massimo D'Alema to create a large party of left-wing project in Italy is known as 'The thing 2';

On October 21, 1998 he/she was appointed Minister for institutional reforms in the Government of Massimo D'Alema. During his tenure, the Council of Ministers approved on 9 March 1999 a draft law to establish the bases of federalism in Italy, fruit of the work and the debate on the reform carried out by the Parliamentary Commission federal Bicamenral, dissolved in June 1998.

On May 13, 1999 he/she was appointed Minister of Treasury, instead of Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, elected President of the Italian Republic.

After the failure of the center-left coalition in Italian regional elections on April 16, 2000, the Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema presented his resignation to President Ciampi, who immediately asked D'Amato the formation of a new Government. Guliano Amato was sworn in as new Prime Minister of the Republic Italian on April 26, 2000. In the legislative elections held on May 13, 2001 won the candidate of the Conservative coalition House of freedoms, Silvio Berlusconi, who on June 9 of that year became new Italian Prime Minister.