Biography of Giulio Andreotti (1919-2013)

Italian politician, born in Rome on January 14, 1919, and died in his hometown on May 6, 2013. Leader of the Christian Democrats since 1954, was Prime Minister in several cabinets between 1972-1973, 1976-1979 and 1989-1992.

He studied law at the University of Rome, but he devoted himself professionally to journalism over the years of the fascist regime of Mussolini, working for Il Popolo, a semi-clandestine daily conservative Democrat. After the fall of fascism, in the 1946 elections he won a seat in Parliament as a representative of the Christian Democrats, Center-right party. The following year joined the Cabinet of the Democrat leader Alcide de Gasperi. After his death in 1954, Andreotti became the leadership of the party. In the following years he held ownership of almost all the ministerial departments of the Italian State, as a member of the successive Governments of right-wing coalition and center-right of the Decade of the 1960s.

He was appointed Minister in twenty-one times, six of them foreign and eight other defense. Since the foreign portfolio, he promoted the active participation of Italy in the organisation of the Treaty of the North Atlantic (NATO), despite which tried to promote rapprochement with the socialist countries and the Arab States. In the 1970s, served as Minister in several centre-left coalition Governments and kept open the dialogue with left-wing organizations, such as the Communist Party, which collaborated in the legislature from 1976-1979.

In 1983 he was again appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Government of Bettino Craxi and, at the stage in which Francesco Cossiga held the Presidency of the Republic (1985-1992), was Prime Minister of several coalition Governments of short duration. Its management was characterized by continuous political scandals and the formations of Government inability to tackle corruption and bring stability to the rarefied Italian democracy. In the elections of April 1992, the Christian Democrats were defeated and Andreotti gave the head of Government to the Socialist Giuliano Amato. He was appointed Senator for life.

In 1994 he joined the ranks of the Italian Popular Party (PPI), training who left in 2001 to the Presidency of a new political party, democracy Europe, founded by the former Union Leader Sergio D'Antoni.

In 1995, during the so-called "operation clean hands" against political corruption investigations, Andreotti was accused, like Craxi, of criminal intercourse with the Mafia. The Parliament approved a waiver for its processing and Andreotti appeared in court in Palermo (Sicily) to answer these charges. During hearings, was accused by several witnesses and repentant of his meetings with members of the Sicilian mafia which supposedly protected. His political reputation was desbarato by these events.

In March 1998 the judiciary in Rome also requested authorization to the Senate to investigate him for his alleged involvement in the contrived political plot to assassinate the journalist Carmine Pecorelli in 1979, while investigating the scandals of the Christian Democrats. Prosecutors in both trials, during the month of April 1999, requested sentences of 15 years in prison and perpetual disqualification (in the case of the mafia), and imprisonment (in the view for the killing of the journalist). On September 24, 1999 was acquitted in Perugia, together with the other five defendants, on trial for the death of Pecorelli, but two years later, the Court of Appeal overturned the ruling and sentenced former Prime Minister and Senator for life to 24 years in prison to find him guilty of the crime of instigating the murder of the journalist. Appealed the ruling, in October 2003 the Court of Cassation in Rome acquitted definitively to the Patriarch of the Italian Christian democracy. A year later, the Supreme upheld the acquittal of the Italian politician.

He wrote several books, including the collection of biographies lives: encounters with the creators of history (1989) and the most authoritative biography of Alcide de Gasperi.