Biography of Dolors o "Lola Anglada" Anglada i Sarriera (1892-1984)

Painter, ceramist and Spanish writer, born in Barcelona on October 29, 1892 and died in his hometown on September 12, 1984. He/She signed his plastic and literary works under the name of "Lola Anglada". Humanist fruitful and multi-faceted, endowed with a deep artistic sensibility and a sincere socio-political concerns that led her to commit themselves firmly to progressive causes that surfaced in the turbulent historical stage that had him live, distinguished as one of the most combative women of the Catalan Republican and became some of his visual creations in authentic popular symbols of the anti-fascist resistance.

The development of his innate artistic vocation, manifested in her since her first childhood, was possible due to the good situation of economic family, belonging to the wealthy Catalan bourgeoisie. Soon had several masters of painting and drawing, as Antonio Utrillo - cousin of the great painter Miguel Utrillo - at your disposal and Joan Llaverias, started it in the secrets of the illustration landscape, genre in which small Dolors Anglada danaan with astounding precocity. In this line of accelerated learning, he/she joined after taking drawing lessons from the great writer and Illustrator from Barcelona Apel·les Mestres, who taught the young painter technique figurative copy flowers and animals, with such exploitation by Lola Anglada which soon cast to see his master the need to enter in the prestigious school of la Llotjaspecialized in the teaching of drawing natural. Access to that required, among other rigorous tests, overcome a kind of opposition faced Barcelona painter with remarkable success, so it was admitted immediately; but, whatever the technique of drawing natural involved presence in the classrooms of naked models, ladies of the active Social defence Barcelona managed to Lola Anglada was driven out of the Llotja school after having allegedly its minority of age.

Far from discouraged by these gazmonas moral tripping, the young painter continued exercising his artistic vocation until he/she managed to see published his first illustrations, appeared in 1905 (i.e., when Dolors Anglada was thirteen years of age) in the children's magazine Cu-cut! Thereafter, his firm began to be common in different publications of its regional, as La Dona Catalan, En Patufet, La Mainada, La Rondalla for the Thursday and Aci d'Alla, and in 1911 had the opportunity to hang one of his early works, entitled Ball of Festa, at the exhibition international d'art held in Barcelona. A year later, also in Barcelona, he/she joined his works the of his former teacher Joan Llaverias to expose a joint show at the famous Sala Parés, where harvested a success of public and critics very rare at that time in a Spanish artist who had just turned twenty. Protagonist, already at that time, of a dizzying rise in the beginning of 20th century catalan cultural landscape, in 1916 managed to exhibit his work in his first solo exhibition, hung on the walls of the Galeries Laietanes; and, in the course of that same year, he/she was admitted to the famous Academy of Francesc Galí, which met with such promising artists as the ceramist Llorens Artigas and the painters Joan Miróand Enric C. Ricart. Integrated, from then on, the main Catalan plastic cenacles, Lola Anglada became sharing study in his native Barcelona, with the aforementioned Miró.

A year after his admission to the Academy of Francesc Galí came out of printing the first books illustrated by the painter from Barcelona, published under the titles of Magraneta and Taronges d'Or; and, at the end of another year, all these developments were endorsed by obtaining a scholarship from the French Government, which allowed him to settle in Paris and there expand their already dilated plastic knowledge. By that time, Dolors Anglada began to send their works to some competitions such as the national exhibition of fine arts and the halls of spring and autumn, but other concerns of greater scope (such as the projected trip to the French capital) made her give up the effort to seek recognition in this sort of calls.

When it comes to depart for Paris, her father was firm in his opposition to Dolors abandon the family home, so the painter, after much insistence, there were compromise with the imposition of parental travel to France accompanied by her mother. Even so, staying at the gala capital was very helpful, since it had a chance to enroll in the Academy of the Grande Chuamiere and relationship with flagship characters of culture and politics Catalan, Josep Clarà gerundense and Julio González Pellicer - both sculptors - Barcelona, and politician from Vilanova i la Geltrú Francesc Macià i Llusá -called to preside over the Government during the second Spanish Republic, and then exiled in France by his disagreements with the political regime imposed by general Miguel Primo de Rivera. Contact this, Lola Anglada emphasized the Republican ideology that had encouraged since his youth, and on his return to Spain became one of the most prominent female voices of the catalanist movement contrary to the dictator and supporter of the Statute of autonomy.

In fact, this return to the Iberian Peninsula was only the latest chapter in a series of constant travel between Paris and Barcelona, which had regulated the stay of the painter in French territory, since his father was demanding that you spend the shortest possible time in the gala capital. In line with these continuous displacements, Dolors Anglada established contacts between one and another city progressive political sectors, which allowed him to, when it was settled again in Barcelona, joining the Trade Union UGT, integrated into the collective radical feminism and catalanism, and take an active part in many events were organized with the aim of plotting against the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. So, his name began to be popular after his angry interventions in different radio broadcasts, and, especially, as a result of the application of signatures - promoted, among other feminist radicals, by the own painter-targeting women in Catalan, in demand for the amnesty of a group of ensued involved in the so-called "the Garraf plot", and sentenced to thirty years in prison on charges of having participated in the failed against a coastal train bombing, in the spring of 1925. Dolors Anglada and his correligionarias was so laudable, that in a short time managed to gather more than four thousand signatures demanding the release of those convicted.

The time that was delivered to this frantic activity in the public life of his Catalan, Lola Anglada continued deploying an intense artistic and intellectual work that placed it on the front page of editorial illustration both in France and in Spain. In Barcelona they had left the hollanders several books signed by the local artist, as Contes de Paradis (1920) - that not only had their graphic contribution, but had been written by the own Illustrator - and a beautiful Edition in Catalan of the work master of Lewis Carroll, published under the title of Alicia in terra de meravelles (1927). Regular headers La Mainada y La Rondalla for the Thursday continued nurturing your plastic collaborations, as well as other magazines such as Virolet and, especially, La Nuri, a publication founded and directed (between 1925 and 1926) by the own Lola Anglada, and aimed at young women readers. Its prestige as a writer flourished in 1928, when they saw the light their fantastic stories entitled in Peret and Margarida, illustrated by her, who came to join us, in later years, other stories of Catalan artist and author aimed at children: Monsenyor Llargandaix (1929) and Narcis (1930). His success as a writer reached its highest level in the Decade of the 1930s, when it published new children's stories that, like the titled Calvellina i Crisantem, the princep teixidor and Ametllonet, had a huge spread in Barcelona bookshops.

Meanwhile, the quality of his illustrations went unnoticed in Gallic territory, where Lola Anglada was contracted by several publishers requiring his collaborations for their collections of textbooks and children's and youth fiction. Worked for seals editors Nathan, Laffite, Roudanez and, above all, Hachette, where he/she was responsible for illustrating some of the most widely read of the famous nineteenth-century writer Sophie Rostopchin, Segur Contemsse works, such as Histoire de Blondine (1930), Le bon petit Henri (1931) and Histoire de Rosette (1932).

The joyful arrival of the II Republic renewed the political travails of Dolors Anglada i Sarriera, which supported unreservedly to his friend Francesc Macià in the Government of the Generalitat and engaged in relationships with other prominent politicians and intellectuals of catalanist bias, as the Barcelona philologist Pompeu Fabra. Put at the service of the nationalist cause his artistic skills, collaborating with the artist Josep Obiols in the illustration of Lectures per infants (1931), of Maria Assumpció Pasqual, a volume aimed at schoolchildren in the country catalan and edited by the Associació Protectora de l' Ensenyança Catalana; but he/she was not content to contribute their creative efforts to the catalanist cause, and also actively worked in the regional policy of the time, where he/she was the Secretary of Acció Cultural (i) Social within the Board of Directors of the Unió Catalanist party.

The outbreak of the terrible Spanish Civil war not led her to shed their political convictions, severely threatened by all the reactionary sectors of the country; before, while still working as Illustrator in little children's publications in the Catalan language that still came to light (such as Estel and Mirbal), accepted a Commission from the Propaganda Commissariat de la Generalitat for the production of a work that would keep alive the Catalan spirit. It was as well as came from the press, in the fratricidal war, the narrative entitled the month petit de tots (1937), written and illustrated by Dolors Anglada i Sarriera, work that, reinforced by a homonymous song composed by the author herself, soon became one of the symbols of the Catalan anti-fascist activism. The iconic image of a boy with Phrygian cap which, with the raised left fist, flies the Catalan flag and harangues fellow militiamen so they don't let in the defense of the homeland became immediately better reference iconic revolutionary ideology and the opposition of Republican catalanism to totalitarian regimes; a symbol that, many years later - already in full transition to democracy the own Dolors Anglada defined as "the son of the revolution [...], born, as a spark of the forge where our men, tenacious and dedicated, forge the great human and regenerating work of the liberation of our people" (Diari de Barcelona, 24-V-1978).

As expected, the victory in the war of the reactionary side put in serious trouble to a brave and committed artist who, in addition to have meant by this political and creative activity described in previous paragraphs, a crude personal testimony of the drama of war, consisting of portraits had left stamped in several oil paintings and drawings and notes to the native of hardened militants, fighters of the anarchist forces, soldiers of the Brigade Karl Marx and Russian volunteers of the famous column Tellman. Under the imputation of separatist, Dolors Anglada was a victim of the persecution, unleashed against the reds and was forced to retreat, frightened, in his Barcelona home, where he/she installed a lithographic press which allowed him to continue working without having to leave a public thoroughfare that was constantly threatened. The need then forced her to accept any request of the conservative sectors that showed their unchaste victory--the only ones that, at present, could afford the luxury of doing artistic commissions-, by which, during those early years of the postwar period, their creative talents were subject to work from so deep draught intellectual such as the design of initial letters for the shirts of the winners or the performance - at the request of the Abbey of Montserrat - commemorative stamps of the enthronement of the Virgin. Desolate by this enforced seclusion and the alarming state of prostration in which had fallen culture in Spain, he/she decided to surrender to a discreet interior exile which led her to the House that kept his family in the small town of Barcelona of Tiana, where he/she was withdrawn from public life throughout the Franco's dictatorial regime.

This forced inner retreat was not creative Lola Anglada silence, although Yes it - for the sake of the jealous political, cultural and moral repression of the early years of the Franco regime - introduced considerable variations on the theme of its plastic production. Dumped, then, the illustration of luxurious editions aimed at the whim of the bibliophile collectors, it stamped his signature in the beautiful lithographic folders of the Barcelona Vuitcentista (1948) series, which included investigations by teammate Francesc Curet, who, until the time of his death (struck in 1970) resided with the artist in the farmhouse of Tiana. Both focused on the study of customs and forms of his countrymen remote and contemporary life, reflected in other wonderful publications as La Barcelona dels nostres avis (1949) and Visions barcelonines 1760-1860 (published in ten volumes between 1952 and 1958). Lola Anglada combined these collective works with the continuation of his individual artistic and literary career, which yielded fruits as seasoned as the collection of autobiographical notes entitled La meva casa i del meu Jardí (1958) or the story Martinet (1962), which gave continuity to the universe of popular Catalan characters that had started to create at the end of the 1920s, as a result of writing in Peret (1928). At the same time, sought - within the narrow limits of inner exile - to not lose all contact with the desolate cultural scene of the moment, so it performed some tasks of decoration and scenographic projects; works which, although not exempt from the tireless inspiration of the artist creative breath, also responded to the need to procure the minimum sustenance to keep your home and meet the expenses of her sisters, who lived with her in Tiana.

So, in 1961 - when only one year was missing to reach septuagenarian status-, Dolors Anglada decided to leave inside retirement occasionally to intervene at a public event where he/she made generous assignment, to the Diputació de Barcelona, of the magnificent series of antique dolls that treasured in their farmhouse, product of the efforts his father collectors andThis dead once, preserved and increased by the own Illustrator. This selfless donation - which can be currently seen in the Romantic Museum of Sitges (Barcelona) - followed, shortly after delivery to the catalan heritage of his family farm of Tiana, but this time for the essential economic compensation for the support of the elderly writer and his sisters. Years later, the public bodies responsible for the management of this historic mansion turned it into a restaurant.

These stormy economic hardships that threatened to overshadow his later years of life began to wane during the first half of the 1970s, when the notorious weakness of the Francoist regime already heralded some air of political change and ideological openness that, among other consequences benefactor for the stricken field of Catalan culture, brought with them the work rehabilitation and Dolors Anglada historical figure i Sarriera. Indeed, in 1973 the Barcelona Provincial Council convened a few annual events drawing which were baptized with the name of the Illustrator from Barcelona, and, two years later, the same institution recognized the values of his work with the award of the Medal of Cultural merit. Thereafter, the honors rendered to Lola Anglada occurred, without interruption, until the end of its long existence: after an emotional tribute that convened, in lathe their figure, to all the Catalan intelligentsia of the dawn of the transition (1977), V Convencio de Cinema Infantil i Juvenil (1978) the Venus de Barcelona awarded him. Two years later, the veteran artist was honored with the Medal of the Foment de les Arts Decoratives (FAD), and in 1981 the Gallery Laurent de Barcelona returned to summon all artistic media and cultural Catalan in lathe a magna anthological exhibition of the extensive artistic production of the local Illustrator. In 1982, he/she received one of the biggest distinctions granted in its native land, the Creu de Sant Jordi of the Generalitat de Catalunya, and two years later, on the occasion of the demise of the brilliant artist and battle-hardened fighter civic, the Caixa de Terrassa created a series of plastic events convened under the name of "Prize Lola Anglada".

Bibliography

CANALS, Enric: "converses amb Lola Anglada", in L' Avenç (Barcelona), no. 13, 1979, pp. 15-18.

GRANELL, Francesc: Lola Anglada, Barcelona: Nou Art Thor, 1988.

IBERO CONSTANSO, Alba: "Anglada i Sarreira, Dolors", in MARTINEZ, Candida-PASTOR, Reyna-Easter, José Mª de la-TAVERA, Susana [directors]: women in the history of Spain, Madrid: planet, 2000, pp. 396-400.

The book: a magical world." 13 illustrators exposed", Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, 1994 (catalogue of the exhibition held in the Sala Blanquerna in Madrid).

UCELAY-DA CAL, Enric: The populist Catalonia. Image, culture policy i l' stage Republican (1931-1939), Barcelona: La Magrana, 1982.

VINTRO, Angel-GASSO, Lluís: 50 dibuixants of Catalonia which formare time, Barcelona: Glossa, 1981.

J. R. Fernández Cano.