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Biography of Gabriele D'Annunzio (1863-1938)

Poet, storyteller, playwright and essayist Italian born in Pescara (Italy) on March 12, 1863 and died on Lake Garda (Italy) on March 1, 1938. Although it was cristianado in the baptismal font with the name of Gaetano Rapagnetta, would go down in history of universal literature with the literary pseudonym of Gabriele D'Annunzio.

Maximum representative of the literary author in the Italy of the late 19th century and early 20th, forged in his lyrical work a peculiar and unmistakable poetic universe in which triumph, above all, refinement, sensitivity and formal concern. It was, moreover, in his time a character very controversial for his political ideas, which led him to embrace with enthusiasm mussoliniano fascism, as well as in various feats of war as heroic as bizarre.

Born into a well-to-do family belonging to the aristocracy, he/she judged, over the years, that his coming into the world never must have occurred in the delivery of the rest of us couples circumstances, so invented a romantic birth in the Adriatic Sea, on Board of a Brig named Irene. This story reflects well the personality of an Aesthete obsessed by the need to constantly depart from everyday life to always aim for the sublime.

As a child received a careful education in the city of Florence, where he/she was a pupil at the prestigious colegio Cigognini di Prato. There, at the expense of the money from their parents, Francesco Paolo and Luisa, was unveiled as a poet at the age of sixteen, with the publication of the collection of poems Primo vere (1879). In these first time verses, d'Annunzio did not hide his admiration for some Italian masters of late romanticism, such as Giosuè Carducci (1835-1907), with whom he/she shared a confessed devotion to the classics.

He then joined Rome (1881), in whose University he/she studied higher lyrics. Already been decided, then, to consecrate himself fully to literary creation, embraced the Ensign of decadent and aesthetic cosmopolitanism that triumphed in the Roman Banquet, at the time that expanded their credit with the publication of numerous articles and essays in the mainstream media in the Italian capital, as the newspaper Tribuna. It gave then to press singing nuovo (new song, 1882), book of verses that confirmed you as one of the promising firmer of Italian poetry of the time. In it, joyful of wordly goods exaltation shares the limelight with a refined extravagance paganism. D'Annunzio bet decisively by the exaltation of pleasure and, above all, beauty, which elevates to ideal of life, political ideology category, and even religious creed; and it becomes, well, with this collection of poems, in one of the visible heads of the decadentism, trend radically opposed to the other artistic and ideological current that, at the time, had effect for European artists and intellectuals: naturalism.

So, in 1883, with the publication of L'intermezzo di Rime, d'Annunzio became the central figure in the controversy between the decadentistas and Italian naturalists. This book came to be labeled immoral, since his determined exaltation of beauty as objective that the artist should strive clashed head-on with the conception of art which had naturalists, convinced that human creativity was called to denounce the evil and to pursue social regeneration.

His taste for sensuality and enjoyment of the pleasures provided by the existence was also evident in his loving, very hectic and intense life since his early youth, and well recorded in these poems in its initial stage. But D'Annunzio interest by the worldliness, aesthetic refinement and formal perfection should not be reduced to the poetic genre, since, by that time, the young writer Pescara began a fruitful prosistica activity that threw a few new novels, governed by the same thematic and stylistic coordinates for fruit. It's works like Il piacere (pleasure, 1889), Giovanni Episcopo (1892) and L'innocente (the innocent, 1892).

At the beginning of the last decade of the 19th century, Gabriele D'Annunzio, dazed - like much of the European intelligentsia of the time - by the ideas of Nietzsche (1844-1900), fell on account of his obsessive Vitalism could lead you to nihilism. And, in the same way that Nietzsche thought, this risk of incurring the moral vacuum is eluded by Superman and the will to power, in the literary universe of the author of Pescara nihilistic failure is overcome by the ideal beauticians. All of this was demonstrated in their new novels Il trionfo della morte (the triumph of death, 1894), Le vergini delle rocce (the Virgin of the rocks, 1895) and Il fuoco (fire, 1900), as well as in the dramas that began to write at the end of the century: La Città morta (the dead city, 1899), and La Gioconda (1899).

This intense dedication to the theatre came by famous love affair that held with the famous actress Eleonora Duse (1858-1924), for which he/she wrote such works and some of the tragedies that would increase its prestige as a playwright in the early 20th century. Among them, mention the titled Francesca da Rimini (1902), La figlia di Jorio (the daughter of Iorio, 1904) - considered to be the culmination of the Vitalism of D'Annunzio, and inspired by the life of the peasants of the Abruzzi, home region of the author-the fiaccola sotto il moggio (torch under a bushel basket, 1905), the nave (1908) and Phaedra (1909).

Of that period of the 20th century - in which D'Annunzio lived withdrawn in the villa "La Capponcina" in Settignano, after his breakup with actress-are also his poems collected in Laudi of the sky, the mare, della terra, degli eroi (Laudas in the sky, the sea, the Earth and the heroes, 1903) and his novel Forse che si forse che no (maybe(perhaps not, 1910).

Despite his retirement, I was not oblivious to the luxuries and amorous scandals. Married to the Duchess of Gallese, which soon divorced, and lover passionate of the aforementioned Eleonora Duse - whose intimate secrets revealed, with no courtesy, in the novel Il fuoco-had, in addition, his arms other many women who excelled by her beauty, her intelligence and sensitivity, as the Polish painter Tamara de Lempicka (1889-1980), the pianist Luisa Baccara and her sister, the violinist Jolanda. Among the dozens of anecdotes that punctuate this turbulent love life of D'Annunzio, a fight held by the writer against both sisters, which concluded with the precipitation of the violinist for a window becomes especially relevant (although other sources state that the author of the Laudi was the defenestrated). Another of her lovers, Emilie Mazoyer - who worked as a housekeeper in take of D'Annunzio, who baptized it with the poetic name of Aelis, realized in his diaries of extraordinary sexual ability of the writer, as well as some of its peculiar techniques of seduction, as the cover bedding with scented handkerchiefs.

Excesses like these put you in a very delicate situation towards the end of the first decade of the new century, so, beset by creditors, had to leave their homeland to seek refuge in France. There continued deploying intense literary activity, with the uniqueness of that, now, wrote in the language of Molière, what did you deserving of some very severe censorship by Gallic critics more purist. His most important work in French is the drama in verse Le martyre de Saint Sébastien (the martyrdom of San Sebastián, 1911), which reached notable celebrity being one by Debussy (1862-1918), at the request of the Russian Dancer Ida Rubinstein (1885-1960). It also availed of that language for writing the fourth installment of their tombstones, published under the title of Merope (1912), work which contains a series of poems that constitute one of the leading lyric D'Annunzio dimensions. This is the Canzioni della Geste d'oltramare (songs of the exploits of overseas), enthusiastic celebration of the conquest of Libya.

Shortly afterwards, following the outbreak of World War I (1914-1919), in the work and thought of d'Annunzio the myth of Superman is giving way to the idea that Italy is a nation, bound by its glorious past to become the centerpiece of a vast and powerful Empire. The writer, again based in his native country, felt the call of an epic nationalism propagated by fascism, and defended with ardour the necessity that Italy should come fully into conflict. It participated actively in the armed struggle, as a flier, and came to losing an eye in combat, what made him a real hero of war in his native country.

Excited about this paper, enabling him to adapt his ancient aesthetic elitism to the Messianic dimension of the hero, d'Annunzio decided to become direct protagonist of the birth of the Italian "supernation" which now sought, ever closer to the ideology of fascism. So things, in 1919, taking advantage of the dispute between the States of Italy and Yugoslavia over the possession of the city of Fiume (the current Croatian population of Rijeka), challenged the agreements laid down in the Treaty of Versailles, and commanded three hundred armed followers, took the port of the town.

For more than one year, simultaneously challenging the society of Nations and the legitimate Italian Government - called into question throughout the world by this individual initiative of a lighted, author Pescara governed dictatorial way the city that had become his fiefdom. This action not only increased his reputation for arbitrary and extravagant: Additionally, gave wings to the Italian fascists, who had the opportunity to check how the absurd audacity of any of yours wasn't, necessarily, doomed to fail. That is why this mad display of arrogance of d'Annunzio has been interpreted as one of the stimuli that encouraged Mussolini to undertake, in 1922, his spectacular March on Rome, assisted by a horde of thousands of fascists.

In fact, the Duce himself is confessed admirer of the figure and work of D'Annunzio, who honoured, in 1924, with the title of Prince of Montenevoso, in recognition of the favourable climate to the fascism that had managed to create with his acts, his writings and his statements. The author of the Laudi was already, at the time, very accustomed to be honors, tributes and awards, as the shiny sheet for services had made him deserving of three crosses for merit, three promotions by merit made in combat, the cross of officer of the order military of Savoy, six silver medals and the Gold Medal of military merit. Aside from these military awards, Mussolini emphasized their artistic and intellectual worth naming him President of Academy of Italy.

Man of letters above any circumstance, d'Annunzio did not write even in those years of political frenzy and burning Warrior. His literary production was increased with new novels as Leda senza cigno (Leda without Swan, 1916) and Notturno (Nocturne, 1918), and other theatrical pieces such as più che l'amore (rather than love).

Shortly after having left Fiume, Gabriele D'Annunzio was installed in a luxury villa located on the shores of Lake Garda, where he/she continued with a lavish, and eccentric life marked by the ostentation and hedonism.