Biography of José de Armendáriz (1670-1740)

Politician and Spanish colonial administrator, Marquis of Castelfuerte, Viscount of Villacerrada and thirty second viceroy of Peru (1724-1736), was born in Pamplona in 1670 and died in Madrid in April 16, 1740.

They were her parents Juan de Armendáriz e Irrisarri and Juana García de Garrués. Ventured into the career military at a young age, and participated in the battles of Fleurus and Neerwinden in 1693, the military campaigns of Catalonia and Italy in 1702 and 1714 Barcelona decision. He was promoted successively to brigadier, lieutenant general and Commandant-general. He held the posts of Governor of Tarragona, Governor of Guipúzcoa and inspector-general of cavalry and the dragoons of the Crown of Aragon. The Crown named him viceroy of the Peru in the first days of October 1723 and sailed from Cádiz on December 31 of that same year. He arrived in Cartagena de Indias in February 1724, having made stops in Portobelo, Panama, Perico and Paita. Made its official entry into Lima under a canopy of May 14, 1724 receiving power from the hands of the Archbishop Morcillo, who would later attribute the responsibility for the crisis that crossed the Viceroyalty.

The economic government ordered a magazine of Indians to reorganize the tax system that was incomplete, although it managed to increase the number of tax by more than twenty thousand. Despite assuming the defense of the forced mita and its increase to reactivate production in the mines of Potosí and Huancavelica, this sector continued in decline. The viceroy paid particular attention to the increase in certain taxes such as excise duty, playing cards and grocery stores to improve the income of the Royal Treasury. Finally, he sent to imprison several officers of the Mint by corruption. It had before by side of the 17 June 1724 the application of the death penalty to anyone who was discovered practicing the illicit trade. However, smuggling continued in charge of the French and Dutch ships by the ports of Arica and Iquique, which forced the viceroy to contract with the private company of the Marquis de Torre Tagle were the same. Soon after, forbade the English ships transported Spanish goods. Finally, it regulated the conditions for the shipping of the pineapple 'silver' to Spain.

In defense, advised by the marino Blas de Lezo, decided that, in Guayaquil, the hull of the ships 'Captain' and "Almiranta", accelerate at the time that did put a new to keel the vessel of war "San Fermín". The port of El Callao with new breakwaters and walls that was entrusted to the engineer Nicolás Rodríguez strengthened at a cost of 150,000 pesos. He also made a significant investment in the reinforcement of the military defenses of Santa Marta, Cartagena de Indias, Portobelo, Panama, Valdivia, Buenos Aires and Montevideo.

Under this Government began a juncture of rebellions in the Andes. The most important sedition took place in Paraguay in 1721 when José de Antequera, Prosecutor of the Audiencia de Charcas, exceeded its powers of pesquisador judge, ordered the dismissal of the Governor Diego de los Reyes and assumed such position contrary to the provisions from Lima. Antequera expelled Jesuits in 1724 Guaraní territory, prompting that the viceroy entrusted his capture a military expedition commanded by Buenos Aires Governor Bruno Mauricio de Zabala. Antequera fled to Cordoba from Tucumán, took refuge in a Franciscan convent, and then secretly left for Lima, where he was captured in 1726. At the end of its process, which lasted for five years, was hanged in the Plaza de Armas of Lima. Another hoist the Marquis of Castelfuerte had to face was that staged the mestizos of Cochabamba led by Alejo Calatayud in 1730. The cause of this rebellion was the rumor that the viceroy wanted to register this social sector so he paid taxes. Calatayud was captured and executed in his cell in January 1731. Those disorders were joined by indigenous uprisings in Azangaro, Carabaya, Cotabambas, and Castrovirreina, which had cause the abuses they committed the corregidores in the system of deliveries of goods.

In terms of the royal patronage, in 1730 opened in Lima the Nazarene monastery, in 1732, the Marqués de Casa Concha culminated the two rear covers of the Cathedral and founded a House of retreat for women of bad living. Allegations of the viceroy referred to the illicit enrichment of parish priests and religious orders resulted in his showdown with the ecclesiastic cabildo. With the Inquisition, relations were also tense, especially in 1732, when the Marquis of Castelfuerte was forced to appear before the Holy Office in as a witness in a case for sacrilege. The natural disasters that occurred during his tenure include the earthquake in Santiago of Chile and conception of 1730 which destroyed houses and temples.

His Government ended 11 years, 7 months and 21 days when the Crown relieved him and instead appointed the Marquis of Villagarcía. At the end of his Government's report, partly drafted by Pedro de Peralta y Barnuevopolygraph, Armendáriz José went to Acapulco aboard the ship "San Fermín" January 17, 1736. In its services award, Felipe V awarded the collar of the order of the Golden Fleece. He resided in Pamplona and Madrid, the last place where he died April 16, 1740.


MILLA BATRES, Carlos (ed.). Peru historical compendium. History of the 18th century. (Lima: 1993).

MORENO CEBRIÁN, Alfredo. The Viceroyalty of the Marquis of Castelfuerte 1724-1736. (Madrid: 2000).

TAURO, Alberto (ed.). Illustrated encyclopedia of the Peru. (Lima: 1987).