(1851-1940)'/> (1851-1940)' /> (1851-1940)' />
Physician and physicist French, born in La Porcherie on 8 June 1851, and died in La Boirie on December 31, 1940, researcher pioneer in electrotherapy.
He studied medicine at the universities of Poitiers, Limoges and Paris. Ph.d. degree by the Collège de France in 1876 with a thesis on Lung elasticity, awarded by the Faculty of medicine and that he/she passed him the access to the teaching staff of that institution, Dr. Claude Bernard opened for him 1882 biological physics laboratory. That year acting Professor of experimental medicine, and in 1894 he/she was appointed Professor in property of that Chair.
His first research in this laboratory dealt with animal heat, in particular on the quantities of heat which can cause human beings, therefore had to define a mechanical equivalent of heat which earned him the prize Monthyon. In the course of its investigations devised, together with Marcel Desprez, a type of sensitive galvanometer to very weak currents whose operation is based on the induction between two coils, one of which is fixed. With this unit he/she studied muscle contractions and devised a therapeutic against certain skin diseases and mucous membrane treatment based on the application of electrical currents. He/She was also the inventor of the defibrillator, a device that allows to revive the seemingly dead subjects to apply certain intense electric shocks, and showed that the human body could drive an alternating electrical current strong enough to illuminate a light bulb.
His other findings, less scientific interest, were a Magnetoelectric phone and certain therapeutic capabilities of the yerba mate studies; He/She devised a series of thermometers of petroleum ether, capable of operating up to - 180 ° C, designed different procedures for industrial manufacture of liquid air, built a series of electric accumulators that were put in operation in many means of transport - trains, airplanes and submarines-, designed certain types of economic batteries, devised pumps liquid oxygen during the first world war and collaborated in the development of aviationautomobiles and therapeutic radiology techniques. It was one of the designers of the team of wireless telegraphy which was installed in the Tower Eiffel.
Much of these recent works made them in the laboratory Ampere of Paris, which he/she founded. He/She was elected President of the Academy of Sciences in 1917, institution in whose memoirs published the cream of their research. He/She was also member of the Academy of medicine and awarded the Legion of Honor. Among his most important works are Recherches théoriques et experimental sur le rôle de l' Électricité pulmonaire and a Treaty of biological physics.