(Artakhsatra or Arthasastha or Artaxerxes) Persian King Achaemenid, son and successor of Darius II, who in life had associated him as Regent. Greeks gave to the Achaemenid Artaxerxes II Memnon nickname, for his great memory. Access to the throne of Artaxerxes II, whose name was Arsaces, was questioned by his own mother, the intriguing Queen Parisatis, daughter of Artaxerxes I, who wished that the Kingdom had gone to his son less and preferred Ciro, the younger. Artaxerxes II, therefore, had to fight and defeat his brother in the battle of Cunaxa (401 BC). The Greek mercenary troops who participated beside Ciro, the younger, after dissolution of the army, had to retire to their homeland ("retreat of the ten thousand") through Armenia, as it is known by the narration that Xenophon had made in his Anabasis. Artaxerxes II was virtually the last King of the so-called "first Persian domination" in Egypt (dynasty XXVII), as it was recognized by the Jewish colony of elephantine in the high Egypt. For its part, the lower Egypt was subjected to Amyrtaeus, who had conducted a war of independence. Despite the efforts of the great Persian King (invasion of the 358 BC) Egypt could not be then retake. With Greece, Artaxerxes II concluded an advantageous peace, and in the year 387 BC at Sardis Congress met to try the same. He/She was the great Persian King who issued their decisions (according to Xenophon in his Helenicas), which is set into an instrument of peace, accepted by Antalcidas (peace of the King), but according to Isocrates was shameful at all ends. Years later, in 375 BC, Artaxerxes II, together with Dionisio I, brokered a peace agreed between Sparta and Athens, Thebes, peace which was agreed again four years later also involving (Koine eirene of 371 BC). From the religious point of view, Artaxerxes II gave a great impulse to the construction of temples and statues to the gods in different parts of his empire. He/She also introduced to the ancient God Mitra - God of light and custodian of the order - along with Ahura-Mazdah and Anahita. His reign was generally full of difficulties, aggravated by different rebellions of satraps, who ended by assassination or gold. He/She banished her mother Parisatis when this poisoned his real favorite. The last years of Artaxerxes II were altered by internal dissensions among their children. One of them, Artaxerxes III eights, finally took power.