Biography of Isaac Asimov (1920-1992)

Narrator, scientist, journalist and American University Professor of Russian origin born in Petrovichi (in the Russian region of Smoliensk) on January 2, 1920 and died in New York on April 2, 1992. Author of a vast work of popular science disseminated in hundreds of articles and essays for the average reader, also left an interesting narrative legacy progressing with singular boldness and remarkable commercial success in the complex genre of science fiction, in a mode that the own Asimov called psicolohistoria.

Life and work

It was born in a Jewish family, was the eldest son of the marriage formed by Judah Asimov (1896-1969) and Anna Rachel Berman Asimov (1875-1973), who had other two stems, Marcia (1922) and Stanley (1929-1995). Some biographers erroneously set the birth of the writer on October 4, 1919, regardless of the fact that her mother changed this date so the small Isaac might enter public education a year before he/she was because of his age.

At the beginning of 1923 (specifically, the 11 January of that year), the Asimov family left the newly created Soviet Union to move to the United States of America, country to which arrived on 3 February. Installed, at first, in the New York neighborhood of Brooklyn - inhabited mostly by citizens Hebrews-, the Asimov came forward in their new country thanks to the sweet shop run by the head of the family, business that gradually was thriving and moving location. In that establishment they put on sale a series of publications from science fiction that the young Isaac began to devour with real curiosity as soon as he/she had learned to read, without suspecting that, with the passage of the years, some of these magazines would have to go into the street carrying his own name on their front pages.

This intellectual precocity of Isaac Asimov encouraged parents to facilitate early formal education, so his mother falsified his date of birth (as it already has signed up above) to make possible your income, in 1925, at a public school in New York. Pupil since the beginning of his career student, the future writer then completed his secondary education at East New York Junior High School, where he/she graduated in 1930; He/She then went to Boys High School, where it remained until 1935, year in which, once completed their high school studies with brilliance, was prepared to undertake their higher education with only fifteen years of age. Already at that time had experienced the birth of an intense literary vocation that drove him to write his first short stories, texts which, as the entitled "Younger brothers" - written during his student at Boys High School, and focused on the figure of Stanley, his little brother-, just say nothing literary quality then you would treasure Asimov, although already aimed some features of his style, as appealing to a measured sense of humor.

Enrolled at New York Columbia University in 1935, four years later Isaac Asimov had already won the title of Bachelor in chemistry, intellectual baggage that then grew with other studies that allowed graduating in arts and Sciences and his PhD in philosophy. Against the wish of their parents, that they hoped to devote himself to the practice of medicine, Asimov decided that his professional future was necessarily going through the cultivation of literature, so it is consecrated by that time to the writing of a series of short stories which soon gave him some recognition among critics and readers interested in science fiction. So, in 1937 presented a story titled "Cosmic corkscrew" to the Astounding Sciencie Fiction Magazine, at the time directed by the writer and editor John Wood Campbell, one of the largest broadcasters of science fiction in American letters, promoter of some young such outstanding values within the narrative genre as Robert Anson Heinlein, Lester del ReyTheodore Sturgeon, Alfred e. van Vogt and Isaac Asimov himself; and although the first-time account of the Jewish writer was not finally published in the magazine of Campbell, was established between it and Asimov a firm relationship of friendship that ultimately would be decisive for the promotion of the work of the young composer of Russian origin.

Greater publishing Fortune deserved "Stowaway", another early tale of Isaac Asimov that was published in 1939 under the title of "The threat of Calixto", and later played with the new heading of "This irrational planet". Previously, he/she had sent another story to the magazine Amazing Stories, "Abandoned near Vesta", work which, printed in this publication on January 10, 1939, he/she became the first paid writing of Asimov, which gained sixty-four dollars (at the rate of one cent for each word containing). Between the late 1930s and the beginning of the next decade, Asimov wrote more than three dozens of stories, most of them focused on the theme of robots already beginning to single out their production between the of the remaining authors dedicated to science fiction; in some of them already are the characters that would star in other Asimov works followed with authentic devotion by its amazing legion of readers, such as George Powell and Mike Donovan (present for the first time in "Reason" and "Vicious circle") and the robopsicologa Susan Calvi (which broke out with singular success in the literary career of Asimov in 1940, in the story titled "Liar").

This series of stories about robots soon converted to Isaac Asimov in the largest specialist in that modality themed science fiction, which greatly enriched in 1942 with the formulation of its famous three "Laws of the Robotics", conceived as a proposal for a regulation of the artificial intelligence, and aimed at preventing wrong operation of the robots and give them a more sensitive dimension andIf it should be "humanized". The three laws set forth by Asimov received the following formulation:

1) a robot should not harm a human being, or through inactivity to allow one to be danado.2) a robot must always obey humans, unless there is a conflict with the first ley.3) a robot must protect themselves from damage, unless there is a conflict with the first or second law.

Meanwhile, the professional life of Isaac Asimov ran routes away to literary creation - even though the author never stopped writing-, and ruled by the outbreak of the second world war. Indeed, in 1941 he/she had begun to work for the U.S. Navy in a few laboratories of Philadelphia, which was able to develop an interesting work of scientific research that would be of great benefit for his subsequent essays and literary production. While these labor obligations, Asimov met on several occasions with John Wood Campbell, and result of the exchange of ideas between both creators, conceived a vast narrative project that was to become his first big international sales success. This project, called the 1000 year plan initially consisted of writing a series of stories based on the fall of the Galactic Empire of the future, idea that enthused to Campbell, who put the pages of his magazine Astounding Sciencie Fiction available to Asimov to begin spreading the first deliveries of the series. Finally, Asimov met some of the stories that had already written and, under the title of the Foundation (1942), published in the may issue of above magazine. In the course of that same month (specifically, the day 26 May 1942), writer married to Gertrudis Blugerman, had known that the day of Valentine's day of that year, and that was to have two sons: David (1951) and Robin Joan (1955).

Finished the war international contest, Asimov left his position in the Navy and continued to expand their sights intellectual, now put on some biochemical studies that, taken at Columbia University, he/she was allowed in 1948 to add to their previous qualifications the academic degree of doctor in this matter. The following year he/she joined the Faculty of the Medical School of the University of Boston, for teaching as Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, which continued explaining in such classrooms for nearly a decade (1949-1958). He/She then combined their teaching assignments with the cultivation of literary creation, which soon returned to Excel by their extensive narration entitled Pebble in the Sky (a pebble in the sky, 1950), followed, in the course of that same year, the stories of the titled volume I, robot at work (I, robot, 1950), in which the three "laws of the Robotics" which had already set forth years ago were printed. A year later, he/she published book Foundation (1951), and thereafter deployed an intense and continuous literary activity became one of the most prolific authors of the 20th century, as more than five hundred titles in your bibliography. At the same time, began writing a series of essays and scientific treatises that were very well received by the critics and readers from all over the world, because they were within reach of the profane in scientific knowledge a series of basics explained with rigour, simplicity and clarity. His first forays into this area of scientific popularization were Biochemistry an human metabolism (1952) - written in collaboration with educational partners B. Walker and W. Boyd and Chemicals of life: e., vitamins, hormones (1954); Subsequently, he/she published other many works of the same genre, among those who recalled the graduates photosynthesis; One hundred basic science questions; The universe; Introduction to science; With the earth it is enough for us; The galaxies, and the naked Sun. Also dealt with other fields of knowledge, such as the history (the birth of the United States, the Roman Empire, the Roman Republic, the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Near East), mathematics, psychology, and sociology, and came to talk about a new humanistic discipline, the Psicolohistoria, which, according to its proposal, would be a sum of contributions from the four branches of human knowledge above. Likewise, led an effort to disseminating it wrote some works aimed at children and youth, in which mixing fiction with a series of essential scientific and historical rudiments in the cultural education of schoolchildren. Their best works of fiction, include here - apart from the already mentioned a pebble in the sky; Foundation and I, robot - titled The currents of space (the currents of space, 1952), The kingdon of the sun (the Empire of the Sun, 1960) and The gods themselves (the gods themselves, 1972). In his role as columnist, for more than thirty years he/she collaborated regularly with monthly Fantasy and Science Fiction, where they saw the light more than four hundred of his articles, many of them reproduced in the rotating main and magazines around the world.

In 1970, Isaac Asimov is separated from his wife Gertrude to marry, three years later, Janet Opal Jeppson (30 November 1973), with whom he/she had no offspring. Recognized, already by then, as one of the most famous writers read around the world, was the subject of numerous honors and awards, which include the "Hugo", "T. Grady" Prize award and distinction as Grand Master Nebula, which was granted in 1986. His prominence within some of the fields whose treatment had addressed in its vast print production earned him various positions of great relief and responsibility, as the President of the American Humanist Association and member of the Committee for the scientific investigation of alleged phenomena paranormal.

Referred to as far as their spiritual life, it should be noted that, though born Jewish and educated - parents in their early childhood-a New York synagogue where his father worked as Secretary and he/she learned the Hebrew language, soon professed atheism of clear sign humanist, based primarily on its firm belief that everything achieved so far was product of the effort of the human beings in the ancient course of the history. Despite these beliefs, their knowledge of the language and the sacred texts of their elders allowed him to address, in its vast intellectual curiosity, the detailed study of the Bible, which extracted material for his books guide of the Bible and the story of Ruth.

At the beginning of the 1990s, following a surgical intervention motivated by a serious prostate condition, Isaac Asimov was forced to reduce its intense research and creative activity. Death befell him in New York City starting in the spring of 1992, as a result of heart failure and kidney failure.

List of his works

Although it is virtually impossible to collect comprehensively in a bio-bibliographical sketch of these features, all of the titles that make up the copious bibliography of Isaac Asimov, then offers a fairly complete listing of his works, sorted by genres. To facilitate the consultation of the English-speaking reader, the title of the version in Spanish to the English original name takes precedence in this relationship.

Science fiction novels

-A pebble in the sky (Pebble in the sky, 1950)-Star Arena (The stars, like dust, 1951)-Foundation (Foundation, 1951)-Lucky Starr. Space ranger (Lucky Starr, Space ranger, 1952)-Foundation and Empire (Foundation and Empire, 1952)-the currents of space (The currents of space, 1952)-second Foundation (Second Foundation 1953)-Lucky Starr. The Pirates of the asteroids (Lucky Starr and the pirates of the asteroids, 1953)-steel vaults (The caves of steel, 1954)-Lucky Starr. Oceans of Venus (Lucky Starr and the oceans of Venus, 1954)-the end of eternity (The end of the eternity, 1955)-Lucky Starr. The big Sun of mercury (Lucky Starr and the big sun of Mercury, 1956)-the naked Sun (The naked sun, 1957)-Lucky Starr. Jupiter's moons (Lucky Starr and the moons of Jupiter, 1957)-Lucky Starr. Saturn's rings (Lucky Starr and the rings of Saturn, 1958)-fantastic voyage (Fantastic Voyage, 1966)-the gods themselves (The gods themselves, 1972)-Foundation limits (Foundation's edge, 1982)-Norby, the extravagant robot (Norby the mixed up robot, 1983)-robots of dawn (The robots of dawn, 1983)-another secret of Norby (Norby completo other secret, 1984)-Norby and the lost Princess (Norby and the lost Princess)1985)-robots and Empire (Robots and Empire, 1985)-Norby and the invaders (Norby and the invaders, 1985)-Foundation and Earth (Foundation and Earth, 1986)-Norby and Queen Necklace (Norby and the Queen's necklace, 1986)-Norby saves the universe (Norby finds a villian, 1987)-fantastic voyage II. Destination: brain (Fantastic voyage II: Destination brain, 1987)-prelude to Foundation (Prelude to Foundation, 1988)-Norby returns to Earth (Norby, down to Earth, 1988)-Nemesis (Nemesis, 1989)-the great adventure of Norby (Norby and Yobo's great adventure, 1989)-dusk (Nightfall, 1990)-son of time (The ugly little boy, 1992).-the human robot (The positronic man, 1993).

Mystery novels

-Murder in the Convention (Murder at the ABA, 1976).

Stories of science fiction and collections of short stories

-I, robot (I, robot, 1950)-to the Martian (The martian way and other stories, 1955)-Earth us enough (Earth is room enough: Science fiction tales of our own planet, 1957)-nine Futures (Nine tomorrows: Tales of the near future, 1959)-robots (The rest of the robots, 1964)-eyes do more than see (Nightfall and other stories)1969)-machine that won the war (Nightfall and other stories, 1969)-fourth generation (Nightfall and other stories, 1929)-am in Puertomarte without Hilda (Asimov completo mysteries, 1968).-selection 1 (The early Asimov or, eleven years of trying, 1972)-selection 2 (The early Asimov or, eleven years of trying, 1972)-selection 3 (The early Asimov or, eleven years of trying, 1972)-a ring around the Sun (Extract of The early Asimov or)(, eleven years of trying, 1972)-buy Jupiter (Buy Jupiter and other stories, 1975).-Bicentennial Man (The bicentennial man and other stories, 1976).-winds of change (The winds of change and other stories, 1983).-parallel stories (The alternate Asimov, 1986).-dreams of robot (Robot dreams, 1986)-Chronicles (The Asimov chronicles: Fifty years of Isaac Asimov, 1989).-visions of robot (Robot visions)1990)-Gold (1995).

Fantastic story collections

-Azazel (Azazel, 1988).

Collections of tales of mystery

-Tales of the black widowers (Tales of the Black Widowers, 1974)-more tales of the black widowers (More such of the Black Widowers, 1976)-archive of the black widowers (Casebook of the Black Widowers, 1980)-the puzzles of the black widowers (Puzzles of the Black Widowers, 1990).

Anthologies edited by Asimov

-Hugo (1968-1969)-Awards before the age of gold (vols. 1 and 2)-the age of gold (vols. 1 and 2, 1939-1940)-the age of gold (1941)-the age of gold (1942-1943)-the age of gold (1944-1945)-the age of gold (1946-1947)-hallucination orbit.-spinach and other crimes of extraterrestrial computer.-young-end Awards Hugo (1978-1979) - young ghost-Hugo (1980-1982)-stories of the unseen awards.

The robotic laws

Robot City series

-Odisea.-Sospecha.-Ciborg.-Prodigio.-Refugio.-perihelion-metamorphosis-renegade.