Biography of Isidro Ayora Cueva (1879-1978)

Politician, physician and Ecuadorian Professor, interim President of the Republic (1926-1929) and constitutional President from 1929 to 1931. He/She was born in Loja, on August 3, 1879, and died in California (USA).UU.) the 22 March 1978, a few months before the age of one hundred years.

Made his early studies in his hometown, he/she made career in medicine at the Central University of Quito, where he/she graduated in medicine and surgery with the thesis "Biological laws and their applications". He/She completed his training in Germany, where he/she specialized in obstetrics and Gynecology, at the University of Berlin. After returning to Ecuador, was dedicated to the practice of his profession and teaching: "Isidro Ayora" addressed motherhood, the nurses school he/she founded, the San Juan de Dios Hospital, Civil Hospital and clinic. He/She founded, together with Drs. Ángel Sáenz and Ricardo Villavicencio, surgical clinic; established the first Casa-Cuna of Quito; and he/she was the second President of the Ecuadorian Red Cross. In the field of teaching, he/she served as Professor of obstetrics at the Central University as Dean of the Faculty of medicine and, since 1925, as Rector of the Central University. In all its positions it said honest, serious, creative and strong.

From 1919, he/she dabbled in politics as a Councillor and Chairman of the municipality of Quito. After the revolution "juliana" - which ended the hegemony of the Radical Liberal Party the July 9, 1925-, several government boards; occurred in the second of them, Isidro Ayora was in charge of the portfolio of Social Welfare (January 1926), newly founded. The first of April of the same year, formed another Supreme Governing Board, which appointed to Isidro Ayora as provisional President of the Republic; in that capacity, he/she ruled until 1928, year in which the constituent Assembly itself convened appointed interim President, to confirm this on April 17, 1929 as constitutional President, whose mandate should be extended until 1932.

Dr. Ayora ruled with elements of progressive trends, without preference for the conservative party, and with very few members of the liberal party. Its Government is not supported, therefore, in the traditional parties, but in the armed forces. This explains that you displayed strong and repressive. He/She began limiting the freedom of the press: closed many small newspapers and some of the more important, as the glove of Guayaquil and Quito day; banished, among others, Vicente Nieto - director of the popular newspaper Fray Gerundio-, and fearful before the popularity of Jacinto Jijón Caamaño on his return from exile, Ayora expatriated him again; the confinements of members of the opposition to the East or to the Galapagos, as well as penalties against conspirators and opponents to the reforms were common. Finally, become dictator, he/she managed to carry out their plans. He/She insisted on the modernisation of the public administration, which brought United States the Kemmerer Mission (of the Professor of Princeton University, Dr. Edwin Alter Kemmerer); with this advice, most of Ecuadorian experts, was able to carry out one of the most fertile and basic works of Government. Among its accomplishments should be recalled the founding of the Central Bank of Ecuador, of the Banco Hipotecario (today's promotion), box forecasts and retirement (today integrated into the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security), the service (today Institute) military geographical and the Attorney-General's Office; created addresses Treasury, revenue and customs and supplies, the Permanent Commission's budget and the Superintendence of banks. Measure very criticized by many, was the devaluation of the currency, of three to five sucres to the dollar. He/She made a coin of sucre (more tosca than the former) and one of fifty cents. Humor and the popular overpopulate, was appointed to the first with the name of ayora, and the second with laurita, in honor to the first lady, Mrs. Laura Carbo de Ayora. This decision, unpopular but necessary, allowed the Government to provide resources for the supply of several works of a public nature and of benefit to the country, such as the progress of the railway Quito-Ibarra, the completion of the renovation of Guayaquil, roads and bridges, etc.

In the field socio-political, remember the reform of the Constitution of 1929 and the granting of the vote to women. But several elements began to play against him, such as the effects of the great depression of 1929-1930 and the fall in the production of cocoa - main item of export of the Ecuador at that time - caused by a plague. Little by little the social, economic and political crisis was brewing. They began the labour upheavals and student strikes; There was an attempt of coup d ' état by general Gómez of the Tower, struggles of matches traditional access to power, etc. So many together difficulties led him to submit the resignation in September of 1930, but Congress did not accept it was on that occasion. A year later, however, was forced to again submit his resignation, this time irrevocably. Pushed you to three events: the student strike of Guayaquil, the vote of no confidence to his Minister of Government Julio E. Moreno and the revolt of the Chimborazo battalion. Congress commissioned the Colonel Larrea Alba then Government. Isidro Ayora withdrew from the field of politics, and ignoring or praises "Isidro Ayora" or resentidas to its governance, criticized surrendered back to the exercise of their profession in the clinic. In 1955 the University of Berlin awarded him honorary doctorate. From the point view of scientist, was one of the first to practice modern obstetrics in Quito, and from the professional point of view was able to put at the service of health all their efforts and talent.