Biography of Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (1920-VVVV)

Italian politician, President of the Republic from between 1999 and 2006, born in Livorno on December 9, 1920.

Degree in literature and jurisprudence, this last race who studied at the University of Pisa, joined 26 years in the Bank of Italy, where it toured all the steps intermediate to become the Governor of the State. New responsibility, Ciampi devoted himself completely to the modernization of the Italian monetary system, blocked by a series of administrative burdens. One of their first innovations was the introduction in December 1979 the operations of open market (financing transaction consisting of temporary purchases of Government securities by the Central Bank providing liquidity in the short term to the system).

But the milestone in his career at the head of the Bank of Italy came in July 1981 to achieve the autonomy of the issuing Institute against the Government, which was reached when abolished the obligation that the Bank of Italy would cover public debt series that were left vacant after the auctions. Other measures produced during his tenure were the monetary and banking liberalization, the entry of the lira into the European monetary system (EMS), in January 1990, the preparation of the market for the application of the Maastricht agreements and directives to banks on the fight against money-laundering of black money. Its rigor and tenacity, as well as their warning calls to Governments about the danger of mismanagement of the country's huge public deficit, earned him international prestige and his name was repeated at times before the Government in Guiliano Amato (June 1992) as a candidate for "super-Minister" for economy and Chairman of the Executive.

Ciampi only is you know three memberships: the Association of ex-combatants, was second lieutenant in World War II; Italian society of economists and the friends of the Scuola Normale of Pisa. The life of Ciampi has been linked to the Bank of Italy, until, following the resignation of Giuliano Amato as Chairman of the Italian Executive, on 22 April 1993, it was called by the President of the Republic, Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, to form the 52 Government.

On April 28, 1993 it took over as head of the Government and the five days had to reshape the Cabinet when three Ministers of the ex-Communist Democratic Party of the left (PDS) and one of the Green resign. This Quartet resigned in protest at the refusal of Parliament to grant the request against the former Socialist leader Bettino Craxi asked by judges in the "clean hands" anti-corruption operation. On April 16, 1994 he presented his resignation and that of his Cabinet to President Scalfaro. He was replaced on the Executive by Silvio Berlusconi days later.

After his departure from the Government, he was appointed Honorary Governor of the Bank of Italy. Months later he was also appointed Vice President of the Bank for international settlements and Chairman of the Consultative Group of the European Union. Romano Prodi, leader of the Coalition "Olivo" of the center-left won in the elections of 21 April 1996, proposed to be part of his Government, and after accepting the offer, on May 18, 1996, Ciampi took office as Minister of the Treasury, budget and economic programming. Your choice in front of this "overministry", which had to take the most unpopular measures to achieve that Italy agreed to the Group's head to the European currency in 1999, was well received and applauded among economists.

On May 13, 1999, this super-Minister was chosen by the tenth Parliament President on the first ballot. It had the support of the Government of centre-left, especially its President, Massimo D'Alema, and opposition, beating by a thirty long two-thirds required. It maintained its popularity at very high levels during all the seven years and despite the fact that the two major Italian political sectors were betting on his re-election, in the first days of May 2006 Ciampi resigned to the possibility of a new mandate. He succeeded him in the post, the veteran leader former Communist Giorgio Napolitano.

Is in possession of various awards, including: the cross of merit of war during the second world war; Knight of the Grand Cross of the order of merit of the Italian Republic, Grand Cross of the order to the merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.