Biography of Baden-Powell (of Gilwell), Robert Stephenson Smyth

Lieutenant general British, born on 22 February of the year 1857 in London, England and died on January 8 of the year 1941 in Nyeri (Kenya). Baden-Powell highlighted particularly by the heroic defense that made of Mafeking 217 days during the Guerra of the Boers (1899-1902), as well as being the founder of the Boy Scouts (1908). Also helped his sister, Agnes Baden-Powell, in gestation the female branch of the Organization, Girl Guides.

Educated in the elitist Chaterhouse School in London, in the year 1876 entered the British army, where he/she was part of the 13th Hussars Regiment in the India. Between the years 1884 to 1885, Baden-Powell took part in the wars of Bechuanaland and Sudan, where pleasantly surprised the staff by magnificent use which made balloon to observe enemy movements. From 1888 to 1895, he/she was appointed successively in the India, Afghanistan, KwaZulu-Natal, and Axanti (current Gold Coast). In this last war he/she was in command of a battalion of Indians who stood out for their ferocity in the fight a melee with the enemy. Shortly before the outbreak of the war of the Boers (1899-1902), Baden-Powell was sent to South Africa where he/she held several positions that served to ascend in the military ranks:

He served as an officer of the General staff in the campaign of Matabeleland (today Zimbabwe), he/she also held grades of Colonel of non-Regular Cavalry in South Africa and Lieutenant Colonel of the fifth guard of dragons. In the Guerra of the Boers defended bravely and with just 1,200 men, from the 12 October 1899 to May 17, 1900, Mafeking square against a numerous army of boer, until British forces came to lift the siege. As a prize to such behavior, Baden-Powell was promoted to the grade of general. Between the years 1900 to 1903, he/she was in charge of the Organization and management of police forces in the region of the Transvaal. Returning to England, he/she was appointed inspector-general of cavalry and founded, in 1904, the Cavalry School Metheravon, in Wiltshire. By the merits of war, he/she was promoted to the grade of general of division and, later, in 1907, to lieutenant general.

In 1910, Baden-Powell decided to retire from the active army to devote himself entirely to the creation of the Boy Scouts, youth organization that had been created two years earlier, and soon spread in an extraordinary manner around the world. The Organization of Baden-Powell was structured on the basis of confidence without limits that all members had to prove themselves and a very close to the military of moral conduct code. Baden-Powell put into practice their knowledge in the field of obtaining information about a hostile territory achieved during their harsh expeditions by Africa and the India. Given the resounding success that his sister Agnes was the Organization, in the year 1910 was responsible for creating the female branch, Girl Guides.

In 1920, he/she organized in London the first global meeting of Boy Scouts, The Boy Scouts Jamboree (great meeting of Scouts Scouts), which was hailed unanimously as World President of the organization. During the 92 years of existence of the movement, around 250 million people have belonged sometime in their life to the Boy Scouts.

As a reward for his merits and services to the Crown (the last of them played in the Intelligence Department during the first world war British), in 1929 obtained the barony to his surname, as well as the recognition and multiple awards, which was awarded in different countries, among them the great cross of Alfonso XII (Spain) and the Gran Cruz Orange-Nassau (Netherlands). Named President of the Royal Geographic Society, the last years of his life were spent in Kenya, since for reasons of health he/she had to move away from the damp cold London weather.

His autobiography, Lessons of a Lifetime, written in the year 1933 and unfinished, was completed in 1957 by the writer Ernest Edwin Reynolds, who published it under the final title of Baden-Powell. Prolific writer, Baden-Powell left a stunning literary legacy of which we can highlight the following titles: Sketches in Mafeking and East Africa, 1907 (sketches of Mafeking and East Africa); Scouting for Boys, 1908 (exploring for young people), Girl Guides, 1917 (the girls scouts); What Scout can do?, 1921 (can do a Scout?); Adventures and Accidents, 1934 (adventures and accidents); and, finally, More Sketches of Kenya, 1940 (more descriptions about Kenya).