Biography of Zigmut Bauman (1925-VVVV)

Polish sociologist, born in Poznan, on November 19, 1925.

His family of Jewish non-observant, when the nazis invaded Poland, emigrated to Russia. Zigmut joined the Polish Army, controlled by the Soviets, performing functions of political instructor, participated in the battles of Kolberg and some military operations in Berlin. In May 1945 otorgadada was the military cross to the value. From 1945 to 1953 Bauman fulfilled similar functions fighting nationalist insurgents from Ukraine, and as a contributor to military intelligence.

During his years of service, he/she began to study sociology at the University of Warsaw, and continued in the career of philosophy, as sociology was discontinued by "bourgeois". In 1953, having reached grade military major, he/she was fired from body military with dishonor, as soon as his father to present at the Embassy of Israel to ask for immigrant visa. It is in this period when completed his studies, receiving in 1954, and entering as a professor at the University of Warsaw, where he/she remained until 1968.

In a stay of studies at the prestigious London School of Economics, he/she prepared a relevant study on the English Socialist Movement, which was published in Poland in 1959, and later appeared edited in English in 1972. He/She continued publishing works, mainly sociology for everyday life (1964), which proved to be very popular in Poland, and then formed the main structure of thinking sociologically (1990). Initially, Bauman continued faithful to the doctrine Marxist, but over time was changing its thinking, gradually being critical of the actions of the Polish Government, in fact, never allowed him access to a square regular Professor, and when his mentor Julian Hochfeld was appointed by UNESCO in Paris, Bauman took over that position in fact, without recognition. Due to strong political pressure on the rise, Bauman renounced the party in January 1968, and in March was forced to emigrate, forced to renounce their nationality. First he/she went to Tel Aviv University, before accepting a place at the University of Leeds, where he/she also became head of Department. Since Bauman writes and publishes only in English, his third language, and its reputation in the discipline has grown exponentially.

Bauman work extends over 57 books and more than 100 trials, from that first work about the English labour movement, although he/she did not abandon all matter of social movements and their conflicts, and has not abandoned all nor its position of adherence to socialism, even without denying completely the postulated Marxistsas Gramsci one of his most profound influences. His works from the late 1980 and early the 90's reveal relationships of modernity, bureaucracy, prevailing rationality and social exclusion. According to Freud, conceived the European currency as the product of a compromise between the cession of freedom and comfort to enjoy a level of benefits and security.

Modernity, says, in what they then called its "solid foma", requires the abolition of questions and uncertainties, takes control over nature, a bureaucratic hierarchy, more rules and regulations, to make appear the chaotic aspects of human life as organized and with sense of familiarity. However, these efforts do not end to achieve the desired effect, and when life seems that it begins to circulate by default Rails, there will always be some social group that does not fit into the plans assigned to them, and they may not be controlled. Bauman appealed to foreign literary figure, according to the book of Camus, to exemplify it. Away in the sociology of Georg Simmel and Jacques Derrida, Bauman described the "foreigner" as the one who is present but is not familiar, an unpredictable social.

Modernity and ambivalence Bauman describes how society is ambivalent with these strangers in their midst elements, since on the one hand it welcomes them and admits some degree of strangeness, of difference in different fashions and behavior patterns, but inside lies the fear the marginal, not fully adapted, characters living on the margins of the common standards. In his best-known work, modernity and the Holocaust, develops the argument of the Holocaust should not be considered as a fact in the history of the Jewish people, but that it should be seen as a forerunner of the attempts of modernity in generating the prevailing order. Rationality as procedure, the division of labor in tiny and specialized tasks, the tendency to regard obedience to the rules as moral and intrinsically good, had in the Holocaust its degree of incidence so that this could take place. In its analysis, the Jews became the "foreigners" par excellence, and Bauman, like the philosopher Giorgio Agamben, argue that the processes of exclusion and disqualification of that difficult to categorize and control remain still until today.

Diffuse, indefinite, fear that is in reality a reference given, you call it "liquid fear", present in "liquid modernity" current, where crucial uncertainties underlying the motivations of consumerism. Institutions and social organizations have no time to solidify, they cannot be sources of reference for human actions and to plan long term, individuals are taken to perform immediate, short-term projects, giving rise to episodes where the concepts of career or progress can be properly applied, constantly ready to change strategies, forget commitments and loyalties in pursuit of fleeting opportunities.

Bauman has been awarded the Amalfi of sociology and social sciences in 1992, and the award Theodor W. Adorno Award granted by the city of Frankfurt in 1998.