Poet, Narrator, essayist and Irish playwright, born in Foxrock, Dublin, on April 13, 1906 and died in Paris on December 22, 1990. In 1969, he received the Nobel Prize for literature.
Class Protestant family media accommodated, studied at Earlsford House, at Portora Royal School and in 1923 began the college career at Trinity College, Dublin, where he studied English, French and Italian, and received the degree of "Bachelor of Arts" in 1927.
In 1928 he worked as a tutor of French at Campbell College in Belfast, went to Paris as a reader in English at the École Normale Supérieure and met James Joyce, with which he maintained a relationship of friendship and collaboration which lasted until the death of Joyce, in January 1941. In September 1930 he returned to Dublin and was Professor Assistant at Trinity College for four quarters, giving lectures on De Vigny, Balzac, Flaubert, De Musset, Bergson and Stendhal. In December 1931, he obtained the title of "Master of Arts"; in January 1932, he left Trinity College Professor and resigned from teaching.
He was in Germany, Paris, Ireland and, after the death of his father in June 1933, settled in London. This stage is characterized by a great emotional and economic crisis. In 1936 he returned to Germany and stayed several months traveling and visiting other cities Hamburg, Lüneburg, Hanover, Berlin, Leipzig, Nuremberg and Munich. In 1938 he decided to settle in Paris definitively.
When it erupted the second world war was in Ireland and quickly returned to Paris. After the Franco-German Armistice, he joined a resistance group and in 1942 had to flee from the Gestapo. He took refuge in the Vauclusa, conducting field. At the end of the war, he went to Ireland and subsequently returned to Paris.
For some time lived works of translation, including an anthology of Mexican poetry translated into English in collaboration with Octavio Paz. The major publishers rejected his manuscripts until the Jérôme Lindon Publisher of Les Éditions de Minuit decided to publish his works.
In 1961 he shares with Jorge Luis Borges the "Publishers Prize, international prize awarded by the editors. In 1965, gets the critics at the Venice Film Festival award for his film Film, with Buster Keaton as the protagonist. In 1969 the Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, which was picked up by his editor, previously mentioned, M. Jérôme Lindon.
In Paris he produced, published and released the core of his work. He wrote in French and in English and translated his works from French into English and from English into French. He was a multifaceted author that spanned many genres: novel, theatre, essay, criticism, poetry, translation, Screenwriting, radio, television and stage direction.
A metaphorical concentration with a great economy of expressive means, the work of Beckett reveals a deeply pessimistic picture of the human condition in contemporary society as a whole. The topics covered by Samuel Beckett are: loneliness, suffering, the brevity of human life, the inability to communicate, the physical degradation, disaster, desolation, helplessness and misery. He writes about quirky characters, beggars, sick, dying, i.e. about grotesque characters, stripped of its social appearance, even their physical and intellectual faculties that follow a clear process of decomposition path of absolute decadence.
His first published work was an essay on the novel Work in progress of Joyce, later called Finnegans Wake, which included appeared alongside other trials in Our Exagmination Round his Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress, published in Paris in 1929.
In 1930 he saw light Whoroscope, a long poem in English based on the life of Descartes. Follows essay Proust (1931), a remarkable example of literary criticism. In 1934 he began his narrative production with the stories More pricks than kicks (more Stingers that kicks), containing episodes of his first novel written, but never published, entitled Dream of Fair to Middling Women; She is followed by the novels Murphy (1938) and Watt (1942), the latter written in the period in which took refuge in the Vaucluse on the occasion of the search order that was against him from the Gestapo. Between 1951-1953 published three novels that make up the trilogy: Molloy (1951), Malone dies (Malone dies, 1951) and L'innommable (the nameless, 1953), written in 1947, 1947-48 and 1949-50 respectively.
During the period spanning from the year 1945 to 1950 in French wrote the following works: the stories end, the outcast, first love and the soothing; Mercier and Camier novels and three novels listed above; the dramatic pieces Eleuteria, which was never released or published by desire of the author and waiting for Godot; the texts Nouvelles et textes pour rien (novels and texts for nothing); paint the Van Velde or the world trials and pants, painters of the impediment, three dialogues with Georges Duthuit (written in English); and poetry of the cycle "47-49" (subsequently published with poems of the cycle "38-39" poèmes 1968).
On January 5, 1953 was premiered at the Théâtre de Babylone in Paris under the direction of Roger Blin the most important work of Beckett: En attendant Godot (waiting for Godot). The piece remained in billboard more than one year and his fame became international, representing later in about forty countries and being translated into twenty languages. He was published in 1954 in New York Waiting for Godot English translation done by himself.
In 1956 he had written in French Acte sans paroles (Act without words), Acte sans paroles II (Act without words II) and All that fall (all that fall), radio drama commissioned by the BBC in London.
On April 3, 1957 premiered at the Royal Court Theatre in London the second of their large dramatic pieces Fin de partie (end of game, 1957), work of great difficulty, the result of several years of intense work and continuous improvement of the text. It is regarded today as one of the masterpieces of the theatre of this century.
Except Cascando, a piece for French radio premiered in 1963, wrote after All that fall all of his dramatic works in English language. Among others, it is worth noting Krapp's (1958), Embers (Cenizos, 1959), Happy days (1961), Words and Music (1962), Play (1963), Film (1965), Come and go (1966), Eh Joe (1966), Breath (1969), Not I (1973), That time (1976) and Footfalls (1976).
However, he continued to write in French his prose texts. Notably, Comment c'est (as is, 1961), Imagination morte imaginez (1965), Assez (1966), Bing (1966), Sans (1969), Le dépeupleur (1970), Foirades (I-v, 1972-73) and Pour finir encore (1976).
His poetic production, it is worth mentioning the appearance in 1935 of Echo completo Bones, a collection of poems; followed poems 1937-1939 (1939) and Trois poèmes (collection of poems, 1948).