Biography of Björnstjerne Martinus Björnson (1832-1910)

Writer and Norwegian politician, born in Kvikne (Østerdalen) and died in Paris. He was a playwright, poet, journalist, novelist and theatre director, and constituted after the also poet Wergeland, the higher figure which prompted Norwegian rebirth and independence. Descendant of a family of farmers, conducted the first studies in mould and also the University, who soon left to devote himself to literature and theatre criticism, his true passion, because already child's out of school, their tastes had tilted toward reading the novels of Ingemann and Scott and demologicos texts of Asbjørnsen and the ancient sagas of the Kings of Norway. He directed the theatre of Bergen (1857-59) and of Christiania (1865-67), where he directed also own another (1877-82). He was a journalist of the democratic opposition, in the daily Aftenbladet in 1859 and the Norsk folkeblad during 1866-71, and he made long journeys to Italy, United States, France and Germany, where he received the influence of liberal thought, but not why he abandoned their entrenched roots based on a typically Nordic national provincialism; possessor of a contradictory character, was radical agitator in politics and religion; However, it was a Puritan and conservative, and at the same time escandinavista and pangerman. As belonging to the Norwegian romanticism intellectual promoted interest in the study of the pre-Christian Norse culture: language, art, history, religion, etc., and since the rural sector of its time kept almost intact the Customs and language of the past, said romance was inspired by the peasant world to conform to its primitive Norwegian culture all be.

In terms of his literary work, the first texts of Bjørnson show the interest that the author expressed by the ancient Nordic culture, from between battles (1857), his first drama in verse, followed that same year Synnøve Solbakken, a series of stories of rural life, or the lame Hulda (Halte-Hulda), until his work Arne (1859). During his stay in Rome between the years 1860-1862, Bjornson gave a new twist to his dramatic career with the play the King Sverre (Kong Sverre, 1861) and especially the violent (Sigurd Slembe, 1864) Sigurd, title of the trilogy where it accommodates the sentimental Idyll and moralism. They followed these works of thesis, where the subject of the ancestral culture is abandoned to reflect on life and contemporary problems of Norway, so are qualified as well as middle-class dramas: A bankruptcy (1857), newly-married (De nygifte, 1865), journalist (Redaktoren, 1874), the King (1877), the new system (1878), Leonarda (1879) or a glove (1883); works which often present an unnecessary controversy and where strength in excess the symbolic function of the characters. On the other hand, their best drama and masterpiece is more than human forces (1883 and 1895), published in two parts, the first of which, introduces the problem of the faith of Christianity, and the second is the relationship between worker and employer. Also wrote the stories and novels daughter of fisherman (1868), the captain Mansana (Kaptein Mansana, 1875), and the paths of God (1889). Apart from more forces beyond human, the best production of Bjornson is composed of songs and poems interspersed in his plays and novels, are of great quality also several minor stories written no didactic or polemic intention some acute, and light comedies such as love and geography (1885) and flowers when the new vidwritten shortly before his death in 1909. Under the title of poems and songs (Digte og Sange) collected countless poems, folk ballads and songs that are scattered throughout his narrative, and theatrical works added to the music of some composers, such as Grieg, and among them is the famous "Yes, we love this country" written in 1859 and became Norwegian national anthem. In 1903, Bjornson was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.